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The World Economy   

The World Economy

Volume 1: A Millennial Perspective

Volume 2: Historical Statistics

Angus Maddison

Published by Academic Foundation under arrangement with
The Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD).
Hard Bound Book (8ผ" x 11ผ")  :   Pages : 654
2007  Edition   :   ISBN -81-7188-613-2
Price : Rs. 1295.00 (For Sale in South Asia Only)
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REVIEWS / OPINIONS :

On The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective:

“A tour de force. What a wonderful gift for the new century."

Robert Mundell,
Nobel Laureate and Professor of Economics, Columbia University.

"An essential reference for anyone interested in global development for many years to come."

Paul Krugman,
Professor of Economics, Princeton University.

"Quite simply a dazzling essay."

Nicholas Eberstadt,
American Enterprise Institute.

"Highly recommended . . . refreshing and full of historical information. An important book."

Kisanhani F. Emizet,
Kanzas University, writing in International Politics.


ABOUT THE BOOK :

 

The World Economy brings together two major reference works by Angus Maddison:

The World Economy: A Millenial Perspective, first published in 2001 and
The World Economy: Historical Statistics, published in 2003.

This new edition contains Statlinks, a service providing access to the underlying data in Excelฎ format. The World Economy is a “must” for scholars and students of economics and economic history as well as for statisticians, while the casual reader will find much of fascinating interest.

Written by the distinguished economic historian, Angus Maddison, together, the two volumes (bound-in-one) comprising The World Economy, hold authoritative analysis along with extensive supporting data on a global level for the growth and performance of various economies across the world, over a very large span of time. They undoubtedly provide answers to many a big question and promise to offer clues to still unanswered paradoxes. This ‘only one of its kind’ publication is made more attractive in the present format (‘two-in-one edition’, hard cover) that is sure to be a valuable addition to any library, personal or otherwise.

The first volume provides a comprehensive view of the growth and levels of world population since the year 1000, when rich countries of today were poorer than Asia and Africa. It is a pioneering effort to quantify the economic performance of nations over the very long term, identifying forces which explain the success of the rich countries, and exploring the obstacles that hindered advance in less developed regions.

In the second volume, Angus Maddison offers a rare insight into the history and political influence of national accounts and national accounting. Based on revised and updated population estimates for 1950-2003 and GDP and per capita GDP estimates for 1820 to 2001, he demonstrates that such statistical data can shed light on the analysis of economic phenomena like growth, market formation and income distribution. This approach is particu- larly interesting for developing countries often lacking the expertise or data to produce good national accounts. It also serves as a reminder for OECD countries that effective policy making depends on verifiable economic data.

The World Economy is a monumental work of reference and a “must” for all scholars and students of economics and economic history, as well as a mine of fascinating facts for everyone else. An attractive feature of this new edition is the inclusion of Statlinks, which provide access to the underlying data in Excelฎ format.

   

ABOUT THE AUTHOR :

Angus Maddison (b. 1926) enjoys a world-wide reputation as a pioneer in the field of the quantification of economic growth in an international comparative and historical perspective. Maddison is Emeritus Professor of Economic Sociology at the Faculty of Economics at the University of Groningen in the Netherlands and Honorary Fellow of Selwyn College, Cambridge. Just recently (October 2006), Professor Maddison was awarded the title of Commander in the Order of Orange-Nassau.

He was educated at Cambridge, McGill, and Johns Hopkins universities, before teaching at the University of St. Andrews in Scotland. His professional relationship with the OECD began even before the Organisation's birth. He was Head of the OEEC Economics Division from 1953 to 1962 when the organisation became the OECD. From 1963 to 1966, he was a Fellow of the newly created OECD Development Centre. He left the Organisation in order to undertake research for the Twentieth Century Fund and Harvard University's Development Advisory Service but, by 1971, Professor Maddison was back at the OECD as Head of the Central Analysis Division, a post he retained for seven years.

Angus Maddison has been an advisor to the governments of Brazil, Ghana, Greece and Pakistan and has travelled widely in developing countries as part of his research interests. His major research interest today is the assessment of the forces affecting the economic growth performance of nations, with particular emphasis on quantitative analysis in historical and comparative perspectives.

Professor Maddison is the author or co-author of 25 books and a great many articles in academic and financial journals.

The author currently lives in Thourotte (France).


CONTENTS IN DETAIL :

Acknowledgements

Preface

Introduction and Summary

 
1.

The Contours of World Development

 
2. The Impact of Western Development on the Rest of the World, 1000–1950
 
3. The World Economy in the Second Half of the Twentieth Century
 

Appendix A : World Population, GDP and GDP Per Capita, Benchmark Years, 1820–1998

Appendix B : World Population, GDP and GDP Per Capita Before 1820

Appendix C : Annual Estimates of Population, GDP and GDP Per Capita for 124 Countries, Seven Regions and the World 1950–98

Appendix D : Growth and Levels of Performance in 27 Formerly Communist Countries, 1990–98

Appendix E : Employment, Working Hours, and Labour Productivity

Appendix F : Value and Volume of Exports, 1870–1998

Bibliography

Text Tables

Table 1–1 Level and Rate of Growth of Population: World and Major Regions, 0–1998 A.D.

Table 1–2 Level and Rate of Growth of GDP Per Capita, World and Major Regions, 0–1998 A.D.

Table 1–3 Level and Rate of Growth of GDP: World and Major Regions, 0–1998 A.D.

Table 1–4 Life Expectation and Infant Mortality, Both Sexes Combined, 33–1875 A.D.

Table 1–5a Birth Rates and Life Expectation, 1820–1998/99

Table 1–5b Average Life Expectation for Groups A and B, 1000–1999

Table 1–5c Rate of Growth of Life Expectation in Groups A and B, 1000–1999

Table 1–6a West European Population Levels, 0–1998 A.D.

Table 1–6b West European Population Growth Rates, 0–1998 A.D.

Table 1–7a Population Growth: Western and Iberian Offshoots in Comparative Perspective, 1500–1998

Table 1–7b Comparative Population Growth in the Americas and Former European Metropoles, 1500–1998

Table 1–7c Shipment of African Slaves to the Americas, 1500–1870

Table 1–7d Net Migration to Brazil, Australia and the United States, and from the United Kingdom, 1500–1998

Table 1–8a Comparative Population Growth: Japan, China and Western Europe, 0–1998 A.D.

Table 1–8b Population Growth Rates: Japan, China and Western Europe, 0–1998 A.D.

Table 1–8c Urbanisation Ratios: Japan, China and Western Europe, 1000–1890

Table 1–9a Growth of Per Capita GDP by Major Region, 1000–1998

Table 1–9b Level of Per Capita GDP: Groups A and B, 1000–1998

Table 1–9c Population of Groups A and B, 1000–1998

Table 1–9d GDP of Groups A and B, 1000–1998

Table 2–1 Population of the Venetian Empire in 1557

Table 2–2 Size and Carrying Capacity of Venetian Merchant Galleys, 1318–1559

Table 2–3 Population of 31 Biggest West European Cities, 1500–1800

Table 2–4 Sugar Production by Area of Origin, 1456–1894

Table 2–5 Atlantic Slave Shipments by Portugal and Its Competitors, 1701–1800

Table 2–6 Number of Ships Sailing to Asia from Seven European Countries, 1500–1800

Table 2–7 Movement of Portuguese Ships to and from Asia, 1500–1800

Table 2–8 Gold and Silver Shipments from the Americas to Europe

Table 2–9 Chinese Imports of Silver by Country of Origin, 1550–1700

Table 2–10 Exports of Silver and Gold from Western Europe, 1601–1780

Table 2–11 Chinese Naval Diplomacy: Voyages to the “Western Oceans”, 1405–33

Table 2–12 Exchange Rates between Ming Paper Currency and Silver, 1376–1426

Table 2–13 Commodity Composition of Brazilian Exports, 1821–1951

Table 2–14 Confrontation of Brazilian and US Economic Performance in the Five Major Phases of Brazilian Development, 1500–1998

Table 2–15 Carrying Capacity of Dutch and Other Merchant Fleets, 1470–1824

Table 2–16 Dutch Merchant Ships by Area of Operation Around 1670

Table 2–17 Employment in Dutch Shipping by Area of Operation, 1610–1770

Table 2–18a Dutch Involvement in European Military Conflicts, 1560s–1815

Table 2–18b Size of European Armies, 1470–1814

Table 2–19 Dutch Commodity Trade, 1650 to 1770s

Table 2–20 Commodity Composition of European Exports from Asia to Europe, 1513–1780

Table 2–21a The Dutch “Drain” on Indonesia, 1698–1930

Table 2–21b The British “Drain” on India, 1868–1930

Table 2–21c Growth of Indonesian Population and Real Income by Ethnic Group, 1700–1929

Table 2–22a Levels of GDP Per Capita in European Colonial Powers and Former Colonies, 1500–1998

Table 2–22b Growth of Per Capita GDP in European Colonial Powers and Former Colonies, 1500–1998

Table 2–23 Structure of British Commodity Trade by Origin and Destination, 1710–1996

Table 2–24 Structure of Employment in the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States, 1700–1998

Table 2–25a Carrying Capacity of British and World Shipping, 1470–1913

Table 2–25b Comparative Rates of Growth of British and World Shipping Capacity and GDP, 1570-1913

Table 2–26a Gross Nominal Value of Capital Invested Abroad in 1914

Table 2–26b Gross Nominal Value of Capital Invested Abroad in 1938

Table 2–27 Gross Nominal Value of Foreign Capital Invested in Nine Major Recipient Countries, 1913

Table 2–28 Population of British Colonies and Former Colonies in the Americas, 1750 and 1830 

Box 2–1 Social Structure of India in the Moghul Empire

Box 2–2 Indian Social Structure at the End of British Rule

Table 2–29 Population of British Territories in Asia, Africa, Australia and Europe in 1830

Table 2–30 Comparative Macroeconomic Performance of India and Britain, 1600–1947

Table 3–1a Growth of Per Capita GDP, Population and GDP: World and Major Regions, 1000–1998

Table 3–1b Levels of Per Capita GDP and Interregional Spreads, 1000–1998

Table 3–1c Shares of World GDP, 1000–1998

Table 3–2a Growth in Volume of Merchandise Exports, World and Major Regions, 1870–1998

Table 3–2b Merchandise Exports as Per Cent of GDP in 1990 Prices, World and Major Regions, 1870–1998

Table 3–2c Regional Percentage Shares of World Exports, 1870–1998

Table 3–3 Gross Value of Foreign Capital Stock in Developing Countries, 1870–1998

Table 3–4 Net Migration: Western Europe, Japan and Western Offshoots, 1870–1998

Table 3–5 Per Capita GDP Performance in the Three Most Successful Phases of the Capitalist Epoch

Table 3–6 Economic Characteristics of the 20 Biggest Countries, 1998

Table 3–7 Western Europe and USA: Degree of Productivity and Per Capita GDP Convergence, 1950–98

Table 3–8 Experience of Unemployment and Inflation in Advanced Capitalist Countries, 1950–98

Table 3–9 Total Government Expenditure as Per Cent of GDP at Current Prices, Western Europe, the United States and Japan, 1913–1999

Table 3–10 Stock of Foreign Assets and Liabilities, the United States, Japan, Germany and the United Kingdom, 1989–98

Table 3–11 Growth in Volume of Merchandise Imports and Ratio of Imports to GDP, Western Europe, Japan and the United States, 1950–98

Box 3–1 Impact of Recent Revisions on Measurement of Level and Growth of US GDP, 1929–98

Table 3–12 Indices of Share Prices in National Currencies, Japan, USA and Western Europe, 1950–99

Table 3–13 Exchange Rates: Units of National Currency per US Dollar, Japan and Western Europe, 1950–99

Table 3–14 Variations in Per Capita Growth Momentum: Resurgent Asia in Comparative Perspective, 1913–99

Table 3–15 Characteristics of Growth Performance in Resurgent Asia, 1950–99

Table 3–16 Stock of Foreign Direct Investment, Total and Per Capita, Major Countries, Regions and World, 1998

Table 3–17 Annual Percentage Change in Real GDP Per Capita, Japan and Resurgent Asia, 1997–99

Table 3–18 Exchange Rates: Units of National Currency per US Dollar in Asian Countries, 1973–99

Table 3–19 Pre and Post Crisis Savings as Per Cent of GDP in Five East Asian Countries, 1990–98

Table 3–20 Per Capita GDP Performance in Six Problem Economies of East Asia, 1950–98

Table 3–21 World Production of Crude Oil and Natural Gas, 1950–99

Table 3–22 Latin American Economic Performance, 1870–1999

Table 3–23 Per Capita Growth Performance in Former USSR and Eastern Europe, 1950–98

Table 3–24 Changes in Production and Consumption in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, 1990–98

Table 3–25 Per Cent of Population in Poverty in Former USSR and Eastern Europe, 1987–88 and 1993–95

Table 3–26 Annual Average Rate of Change in Consumer Prices: Former USSR and Eastern Europe, 1990–98

Table 3–27 Illiteracy Rates in Africa in 1997

Table 3–28 Variations of Income Level Within Africa, 1998

Table 3–29 Degree and Duration of Per Capita Income Collapse in 13 Biggest African Countries South of the Sahara

Table 3–30 Total External Debt of Africa, Asia, Latin America, Eastern Europe and former USSR, 1980, 1990 and 1998

Table 3–31 Arrears on External Debt in Africa and Other Continents, 1980–98

Figure 1–1 Population of Western Europe: Confrontation of Two Millennia

Figure 1–2 Annual Movement in Swedish Birth and Death Rates, 1736–1987

Figure 1–3 Comparative Population Levels in the Three Biggest Countries of the Americas and their Former European Metropoles, 1500–1998

Figure 1–4 Comparative Levels of GDP Per Capita: China and West Europe, 400–1998 A.D.

Figure 1–5 Comparative Levels of GDP Per Capita: China and the United Kingdom, 1700–1998

Figure 1–6 Comparative Levels of GDP Per Capita: China and the United States, 1700–1998

Figure 3–1 Binary Confrontation of US/Japan, US/European Per Capita GDP Levels, 1950–98

Figure 3–2a Binary Confrontation of Japan/East Asian Per Capita GDP Levels, 1950–99

Figure 3–2b Binary Confrontation of Japan/East Asian Per Capita GDP Levels, 1950–99

Figure 3–3 Binary Confrontation of US/Latin American Per Capita GDP Levels, 1950–98

Figure 3–4 Binary Confrontation of US/African Per Capita GDP Levels, 1950–98

Appendix Tables

Table A–a Coverage of the GDP Sample and the Proportionate Role of Proxy Measures, 1820–1998

Table A–b Nature of the PPP Converters Used to Estimate Levels of GDP in “International” Dollars for the Benchmark Year 1990

Table A–b Nature of the PPP Converters Used in Maddison (1995a)

Table A–c Confrontation of Maddison (1995a) and Present Estimates of Regional and World Population and GDP, 1820–1990

Table A–d The Impact of Border Changes in Germany, 1820–1998

Table A–e Population and GDP: 13 Small West European Countries, 1950–98

Table A–f GDP and Population in the Successor Republics of Former Yugoslavia, 1990–98

Table A1–a Population of European Countries, the Former USSR and Western Offshoots, Benchmark Years 1820–1998

Table A1–b GDP Levels: European Countries, the Former USSR and Western Offshoots, Benchmark Years 1820–1998

Table A1–c Levels of GDP Per Capita in European Countries, the Former USSR and Western Offshoots, Benchmark Years 1820–1998

Table A1–d GDP Per Capita Growth Rates in European Countries, the Former USSR and Western Offshoots in Five Phases of Development, 1820–1998

Table A1–e GDP Growth Rates in European Countries, the Former USSR and Western Offshoots in Five Phases of Development, 1820–1998 

Table A1–f Population Growth Rates in European Countries, Former USSR and Western Offshoots in Five Phases of Development, 1820–1998

Table A1–g Derivation of 1990 Benchmark Levels of GDP in “International” Dollars: 22 OECD Countries

Table A1–h Derivation of 1990 Benchmark Levels of GDP in “International” Dollars: Five East European Countries and the USSR

Table A–g GDP and Population in 21 Small Caribbean Countries, 1950–98

Table A2–a Population of 44 Latin American Countries, Benchmark Years, 1820–1998

Table A2–b GDP Levels in 44 Latin American Countries, Benchmark Years, 1820–1998

Table A2–c Levels of GDP Per Capita in 44 Latin American Countries, Benchmark Years, 1820–1998

Table A2–d GDP Per Capita Growth Rates in 44 Latin American Countries, in Five Phases of Development 1820–1998

Table A2–e GDP Growth Rates in 44 Latin American Countries, in Five Phases of Development, 1820–1998

Table A2–f Population Growth Rates in 44 Latin American Countries, in Five Phases of Development, 1820–1998

Table A2–g Derivation of 1990 Benchmark Levels of GDP in “International” Dollars: 18 Latin American Countries

Table A–h India: GDP, Population and Per Capita GDP, Annual Estimates, 1820–1998

Table A–i Reconstitution of Japanese GDP by Industry of Origin, 1874–90

Table A–j Japan: GDP, Population and Per Capita GDP, Annual Estimates, 1820–1998

Table A–k Population and GDP in 19 Small East Asian Countries, 1950–98

Table A–l Arab and Jewish Population and GDP in Palestine and Israel, 1922–50

Table A–m Proxy Entries to Fill Holes in GDP and GDP Per Capita Dataset for 1870 and 1913

Table A3–a Population of 56 Asian Countries, Benchmark Years, 1820–1998

Table A3–b GDP Levels in 56 Asian Countries, Benchmark Years 1820–1998

Table A3–c GDP Per Capita in 56 Asian Countries, Benchmark Years, 1820–1998

Table A3–d GDP Per Capita Growth Rates in 56 Asian Countries, in Five Phases of Development, 1820–1998

Table A3–e GDP Growth Rates in 56 Asian Countries, in Five Phases of Development, 1820–1998

Table A3–f Population Growth Rates in 56 Asian Countries, in Five Phases of Development, 1820–1998

Table A3–g Derivation of 1990 Benchmark Levels of GDP in International Dollars for 15 East Asian Countries

Table A3–h Derivation of 1990 Benchmark Levels of GDP in International Dollars for Five East Asian Countries

Table A3–i Derivation of 1990 Benchmark Levels of GDP in International Dollars for Three West Asian Countries

Table A4–a Population of 57 African Countries, Benchmark Years, 1820–1998

Table A4–b GDP Levels in 57 African Countries, Benchmark Years, 1820–1998

Table A4–c GDP Per Capita in 57 African Countries, Benchmark Years, 1820–1998

Table A4–d GDP Per Capita Growth Rates in 57 African Countries, in Five Phases of Development, 1820–1998

Table A4–e GDP Growth Rates in 57 African Countries, in Five Phases of Development, 1820–1998

Table A4–f Population Growth Rates in 57 African Countries, in Five Phases of Development, 1820–1998

Table A4–g Alternative Estimates of 1990 GDP Level by ICP and PWT in 24 African Countries

Table B–1 Alternative Estimates of the Regional Components of World Population, 0–1700 A.D.

Table B–2 Population of Western and Eastern Europe and Western Offshoots, 0–1820 A.D.

Table B–3 European and Asian Population of Russia, 0–1870 A.D.

Table B–4 Ethnic Composition of Brazilian Population, 1500–1870

Table B–5 Alternative Estimates of Latin American Population, 0–1820 A.D.

Table B–6 Alternative Estimates of Indian Population, 0–1820 A.D.

Table B–7 Alternative Estimates of Japanese Population, 0–1820 A.D.

Table B–8 Population of Asia, 0–1820 A.D.

Table B–9a Alternative Estimates of African Population, 0–1950 A.D.

Table B–9b Regional Distribution of African Population, 0–1820 A.D.

Table B–10 World Population, 20 Countries and Regional Totals, 0–1998 A.D.

Table B–11 Rates of Growth of World Population, 20 Countries and Regional Totals, 0–1998 A.D.

Table B–12 Shares of World Population, 20 Countries and Regional Totals, 0–1998 A.D.

Table B–13 Regional Components of British GDP, Population and GDP Per Capita, 1500–1920

Table B–14 Urbanisation Ratios in Europe and Asia, 1500–1890

Table B–15 Ethnic Composition of US Population, 1700–1820

Table B–16 Ethnic Composition of Latin American Population in 1820

Table B–17 Japanese Cereal Production and Per Capita Availability, 1600–1874

Table B–18 World GDP, 20 Countries and Regional Totals, 0–1998 A.D.

Table B–19 Rates of Growth of World GDP, 20 Countries and Regional Totals, 0–1998 A.D.

Table B–20 Shares of World GDP, 20 Countries and Regional Totals, 0–1998 A.D.

Table B–21 World GDP Per Capita, 20 Countries and Regional Totals, 0–1998 A.D.

Table B–22 Rates of Growth of World GDP Per Capita, 20 Countries and Regional Totals, 0–1998 A.D.

Table C1–a Population of European Countries, Former USSR and Western Offshoots, Annual Estimates, 1950–98

Table C1–b Levels of GDP in European Countries, Former USSR and Western Offshoots, Annual Estimates, 1950–98

Table C1–c Levels of Per Capita GDP in European Countries, Former USSR and Western Offshoots, Annual Estimates, 1950–98

Table C2–a Population of Latin American Countries, Annual Estimates, 1950–98

Table C2–b Levels of GDP in Latin American Countries, Annual Estimates, 1950–98

Table C2–c Levels of Per Capita GDP in Latin American Countries, Annual Estimates, 1950–98

Table C3–a Population of Asian Countries, Annual Estimates, 1950–98

Table C3–b Levels of GDP in Asian Countries, Annual Estimates, 1950–98

Table C3–c Levels of Per Capita GDP in Asian Countries, Annual Estimates, 1950–98

Table C4–a Population in 57 African Countries, Annual Estimates, 1950–98

Table C4–b Levels of GDP in 57 African Countries, Annual Estimates, 1950–98

Table C4–c Levels of Per Capita GDP in 57 African Countries, Annual Estimates, 1950–98

Table C5–a World Population by Regions, Annual Estimates, 1950–98

Table C5–b World GDP by Regions, Annual Estimates, 1950–98

Table C5–c World Per Capita GDP by Regions, Annual Estimates, 1950–98

Table C6–a Year to Year Percentage Change in World Population, by Regions 1950–98

Table C6–b Year to Year Percentage Change in World GDP Volume, by Regions 1950–98

Table C6–c Year to Year Percentage Change in World Per Capita GDP, by Regions 1950–98

Table D–1a GDP in East European Countries, 1990–99

Table D–1b Population in East European Countries, 1990–99

Table D–1c GDP Per Capita in East European Countries, 1990–99

Table D–2a GDP in Successor Republics of Former Yugoslavia 1990–98

Table D–2b Population in Successor Republics of Former Yugoslavia, 1990–99

Table D–2c GDP Per Capita in Successor Republics of Former Yugoslavia, 1990–98

Table D–3a GDP In Successor States of Former USSR, 1990–98

Table D–3b Population in Successor States of Former USSR, 1990–98

Table D–3c GDP Per Capita in Successor States of Former USSR, 1990–98

Table D–4 Confrontation of OECD and Maddison Estimates of 1990 Real GDP Levels in 15 Successor States of the Former Soviet Union

Table E–1 Total Employment in Europe, Japan and Western Offshoots, 1870–1998

Table E–2 Total Employment in Latin America and Asia, 1950–98 

Table E–3 Annual Hours Worked Per Person Employed, 1870–1998 

Table E–4 Total Hours Worked, 1870–1998

Table E–5 GDP Per Person Employed in Europe, Japan and Western Offshoots, 1870–1998

Table E–6 GDP Per Person Employed in Latin America and Asia, 1950–98

Table E–7 Labour Productivity (GDP Per Hour Worked), 1870–1998

Table E–8 Rate of Growth of GDP Per Hour Worked, 1870–1998

Table E–9 Levels of GDP Per Hour Worked, 1870–1998

Table E–10 Annual Hours of Work Per Head of Population, 1870–1998 

Table E–11 Employment in Europe, Japan and Western Offshoots, as Per Cent of Population, 1870–1998

Table E–12 Employment in Latin America and Asia, as Per Cent of Population, 1950–98

Table F–1 Value of Merchandise Exports at Current Prices (56 Countries), 1870–1998

Table F–2 Value of Merchandise Exports at Constant Prices (35 Countries), 1820–1998

Table F–3 Value of World Exports by Region at Constant Prices, 1870–1998 

Table F–4 Rate of Growth in Volume of Merchandise Exports, 11 Countries and World, 1870–1998

Table F–5 Merchandise Exports as Per Cent of GDP in 1990 Prices, 11 Countries and World, 1870–1998

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