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World Economic and Social Survey 2005   

World Economic and Social Survey 2005
Financing for Development

UNITED NATIONS

This work is published for and on behalf of the United Nations.

Paper  Back Book   :   Pages : 246
2006  Edition         :   ISBN - 81-7188-508-X
Price : Rs. 895.00  
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ABOUT THE BOOK :

The World Economic and Social Survey 2005
focuses on the Monterrey Consensus as the current framework for international cooperation for development. The report examines the correspon-dingly broad agenda for action that was set out in the Consensus, recognizing numerous accomplishments to date and draws attention to the further actions—in the financing and trade areas—that need to be undertaken in the years ahead to achieve both the Millennium Development Goals, as well as the broader United Nations Development Agenda.


CONTENTS IN DETAIL :

Preface

Overview

Contents

Explanatory Notes

 

Financing for Development

 

I.

Mobilizing domestic resources for development

Savings, investment and growth

Overall trends in developing regions, 1970-2002

Savings and growth

Saving and investment

The role of foreign savings

Investment and growth

Fostering a favourable investment climate

National development strategies

Macroeconomic stability

The legal and regulatory environment

Labour-market regulation, social protection and labour rights

Domestic financial institutions and development

Development of the banking sector

Development of domestic capital markets

Long-term financing

The changing roles of the public and private sectors in financing infrastructure

The development of inclusive financial sectors

Towards sounder national financial systems

 

II.

Trade

Trade, growth and specialization

Trade vulnerabilities

Commodities

Geographically disadvantaged countries

Multilateral trade liberalization

Assessing the potential benefits of multilateral trade liberalization

The Doha Round: where does it stand?

Regional trade arrangements

The proliferation of trading blocs and free trade agreements

Impact of preferential agreements and policy implications

 

III.

International private capital flows

Main features of private flows to developing countries

Foreign direct investment

Trends and composition of foreign direct investment

How stable is FDI?

Particular benefits of FDI

Financial flows

Bank credit

Portfolio flows

Impact of derivatives

Measures to counter pro-cyclicality of private flows

Counter-cyclical financing instruments

Prudential capital account regulations

Basel II and developing countries

A greater challenge: encouraging private flows to lower-income developing countries

Remittances

 

IV.

Official development financing

Official development assistance

Magnitude and composition of ODA

Volatility and conditionality of aid flows

Selectivity of aid flows

Aid and economic growth in support of the Millennium Development Goals

Donor efforts to increase effectiveness

The multilateral development banks

The role of multilateral development banks

Structure and trends

The debate around the multilateral development banks

The way forward

South-South cooperation

Innovative sources of financing

Major mechanisms in the short run

Major mechanisms in the longer run

A United Nations development fund?

 

V.

External debt

Debt and development

The post-war approach to lending to developing countries

Rapid external borrowing and debt rescheduling in the 1960s and 1970s

Debt resolution in the 1980s

Debt relief

The Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative

Additional HIPC debt-relief proposals

New measures for official debt relief for middle-income countries (Evian approach)

Debt sustainability

Debt sustainability analysis for low-income countries

An assessment of debt sustainability analyses

Debt resolution and debt relief involving private creditors

New approaches and initiatives

Experiences of alternative debt restructuring mechanisms

 

VI.

Systemic issues

Global macroeconomic imbalances and the international reserve system

Changes in the structure of global financial markets

Risk implications of changes in global financial markets

Implications for prudential regulation and supervision

Crisis prevention and resolution

Domestic macroeconomic policies

Multilateral surveillance

The role of emergency financing and precautionary financial arrangements

Strengthening IMF financing of poor countries

Conditionality of IMF lending

The role of SDRs in the international financial system

The role of regional financial arrangements

Enhancing the voice and participation of developing

countries in international financial decision-making

 
Bibliography
 

Boxes

I.1

Raising household savings in China

II.1

A snapshot perspective on tariffs and domestic support

II.2

Multilateralism or preferential access?

II.3

Current trends in trade relations between China and Latin America and China and Africa: potential and challenges

 

Figures

I.1

Savings, investment, growth and poverty reduction, 1970-2003

I.2

Savings and growth, 1970-1979, 1980-1989, 1990-2003 and 1970-2003

I.3

Savings and investment, 1970-1979, 1980-1989, 1990-2003 and 1970-2003

I.4

Investment and growth, 1970-1979, 1980-1989, 1990-2003 and 1970-2003

II.1

Distribution of exports by commodity groups, 1960-2001

III.1

Capital requirements for the United States of America using three regulatory regimes, 1982-2003

III.2

World remittance flows, 1980-2003

IV.1

Composition of official development assistance, 1990-2003

IV.2

Composition of official development assistance to least developed countries, 1990-2003

IV.3

Commitments and disbursements of programme and project aid, 1995-2003

IV.4

Concentration of official development assistance in recipient countries, 1981-2003

IV.5

Collective deviation of flows of official development assistance among donors, 1981-2003

IV.6

Proportion of countries experiencing a decline in bilateral aid volume, by donor grouping, 1981-2003

IV.7

The counter-cyclical character of the lending of multilateral development banks, 1970-2003

IV.8

Map of main proposals on innovative sources of financing

V.1

Ratio of total debt to gross national income, 1970-2003

V.2

Ratio of total debt service to exports, 1970-2003

V.3

Evolution of debt service for countries that had reached completion point

V.4

Composition of Iraq's debt

IV.1

United States current-account deficit, 1970-2004

 

Tables

I.1

Contribution of physical capital, human capital and productivity to the growth of output per worker, world and developing regions, 1961-2000

I.2

Indicators of bank financial soundness in developing regions and European emerging markets, 2002-2004

I.3

Capital raised in domestic financial markets of developing countries and economies in transition, by region, 1997-2002

I.4

Key standards for financial systems

II.1

The 40 most dynamic products in world non-fuel exports ranked by annual average exports value growth, 1985-2002, and share of developing countries, 2002

II.2

Transport costs, including freight and insurance costs of various groups, 1995

II.3

Selected estimates of annual welfare effects from multilateral trade liberalization

II.4

Selected estimates of annual welfare effects from multilateral trade liberalization

II.5

Trade within selected regional trade blocs, 1970-2002

III.1

Net financial flows to developing countries and economies in transition, 1993-2004

III.2

Net transfer of financial resources to developing countries and economies in transition, 1993-2004

III.3

Bank lending in emerging markets, 1993-2002

III.4

Distribution of least developed countries and other low-income countries by population and economic size, 2002

III.5

Countries or areas with the highest ratio of remittances to gross domestic product, 2004

IV.1

Volatility of financial flows and bilateral DAC ODA, top 10 recipients, 1999-2003

IV.2

Graduates from IDA assistance

IV.3

Developing countries: average terms of new commitments, 1990-2003

IV.4

Net flows from multilateral development banks by region, 1991-2002

V.1

Debt relief and reduction in arrears for selected HIPC completion point countries

V.2

Debt-burden thresholds under alternative options

VI.1

Share of national currencies in identified official holdings of foreign exchange, end of year, 1994-2003

VI.2

Shares in world total of IMF quotas and GNI/PPP, 2002

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