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World Economic and Social Survey 2004   
World Economic and Social Survey 2004
International Migration
UNITED NATIONS
Reprinted in India by Academic Foundation, New Delhi.
Paper  Back Book   :   Pages : 240
2005  Edition         :   ISBN - 81-7188-460-1
Price : Rs. 695.00  
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ABOUT THE BOOK :

The present volume:

Part II
of the World Economic and Social Survey 2004 deals with a subject that profoundly affects the economic  and social fabric of all nations - international migration.

Today, more people live outside their country that at any other time in history, and the number of people who are crossing international borders in search of a new home seems bound to increase. As a result, there is growing awareness in many countries of the impact of migration-which has, as was expected, become a matter of intense policy debate. After all, migration brings with it many complex challenges—including issues of human rights and economic opportunity, of labour shortages and unemployment, of brain drain and brain gain, of muliculturalism and integration, of refugee flows and asylum-seekers, of law enforcement and human trafficking, of human security and national security.

The volume provides a comprehensive review of developments in international migration, and of the diverse issues involved.


CONTENTS IN DETAIL :

Preface

Overview

Contents

Explanatory Notes

 

International Migration

 

I.

Migration during 1820-1920, the First Global Century

Introduction

The economic context of mass migration in the nineteenth century

Industrialization and the demand for raw materials

The transport revolution and the convergence of prices

Greater Atlantic migration during the first global century

The migration boom

Economic aspects of transatlantic migration

Policy and the demise of the North-North mass migration

South-South migration in the periphery

Government and private assisted migration in the periphery

Wage gaps and costs of moving in the nineteenth century periphery

The end of assisted migration in the periphery

Conclusions

 

II.

International migration trends

Global trends since 1960

Distribution of international migrants at the country level

An analysis of net migration

The traditional countries of immigration

International migration in Europe

Bases for admission and characteristics of migrants in developed countries

Labour migration in Asia

International migration in Africa

International migration in Latin America and the Caribbean

International migration in the future

Conclusions

 

III.

International migration policies

Historical trends in immigration policies

Countries of permanent migration

Labour recruitment states

Current trends in immigration policies

Overall immigration levels

Skilled worker migration

Low-skilled migration

Family reunification

Integration of non-nationals

Undocumented migration

Regional and subregional harmonization

Migration and trade

Changing approaches to migration since September 2001

Emigration Policies

Conclusions

 

IV.

Economic impacts of international migration

Impacts on Home Countries

Emigration

Remittances

Impacts on host countries

Impact on the labour market

Fiscal effects of immigration

Conclusions

 

V.

Temporary migration and its relation to trade in services

Trends in temporary migration

International regime for the temporary movement of natural persons in the
services sector or the temporary movement of service suppliers

Mode 4 under the General Agreement on Trade in Services

Current utilization of the channel provided by Mode 4

Enhancing temporary movement under Mode 4

Outsourcing: an alternative way of taking advantage of wage differentials

Conclusions

Annex: Status of negotiations in the World Trade Organization on Mode 4 of the 
  General Agreement on Trade in Services

 

VI.

Social dimensions of international mobility

Social networks of migration

Kin and kith networks

Hometown associations

Integration of migrants in host societies

Education and language skills

Jobs and sufficient income

Legal status and participation in civil and political life

Access to social protection and health care

Family reunification

Effects on the social fabric of societies and public perceptions

Effects on home countries

Effects on host countries

Public perceptions

Conclusions

 

VII.

Levels and trends in international displacement

Historical background

Trends in refugee flows over the past decade

Refugee population

Durable solutions

Refugee outflows

Conclusions

Asylum trends in industrialized countries

Asylum flows by country of asylum

Origin of asylum-seekers

Admission of refugees

International cooperation

Recent developments

Improving data collection

 

VIII.

International cooperation for migration management

Bilateral approach

Regional approach

European Union

Regional initiatives in the context of economic integration

Regional intergovernmental organizations

Regional consultative processes

International approach

Role of the United Nations system

Role of intergovernmental organizations outside the United Nations system

Conclusions

 
Annex: Current status of the collection of international migration statistics
 
Bibliography
 

Boxes

III.1

United States of America: post-9/11 and immigration

III.2 Filipinos abroad
IV.1 Migrant self-selectivity
IV.2 Types of remittances and channels of transmission
IV.3 Skills and educational attainments of immigrants in developed countries
IV.4 Self-employed foreign workers
V.1 Economic needs tests (ENTs)
VII.1 Populations of concern to the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
 

Figures

I.1

Terms of trade, United Kingdom, 1820-1872

I.2

Terms of trade, Latin America, 1820-1938

I.3

New and old sources of immigration to the United States of America

I.4

Immigration to chief New World destinations, 1881-1938

II.1

International migrants as a proportion of total population, by region, 1970

II.2

International migrants as a proportion of total population, by region, 2000

II.3

Permanent and long-term migration, New Zealand, 1950-2003

III.1

Government policies on immigration, 1976, 1986, 1996 and 2003

III.2

Government policies on immigration by size of countries' immigrant stock, 2003

III.3

Long-term immigration flows into selected OECD countries by main categories, 2001

IV.1

Selected financial flows to developing countries, 1980-2003

IV.2

Twenty largest developing-country recipients of remittances, 2002

IV.3

Twenty developing countries with largest ratios of remittances to GDP, 2002

IV.4

Flows of remittances by major source regions, 1980-2002

VI.1

Proportion of temporary jobs occupied by nationals and by foreigners, selected host countries, March-April 2003

VII.1

Refugee population by region of asylum, 1953-2003

VII.2

Refugee population under the mandate of UNHCR, by main asylum region, 1994-2003

VII.3

Migration balance of refugees under the mandate of UNHCR, 1994-2003

VII.4

Outflows of refugees under the mandate of UNHCR, 1994-2003

VII.5

Net flows of refugees under the mandate of UNHCR, by region, 1994-2003

VII.6

Asylum applications lodged in 38 industrialized countries, 1994-2003

VII.7

Proportion of asylum claims lodged in 38 countries by region of origin, 1994-2003

 

Tables

I.1

Cumulative impact of mass migration, 1870-1910

II.1

Indicators of the stock of international migrants by major area, 1960-2000

II.2

Females in the stock of international migrants by major area, 1960 and 2000

II.3

Leading host countries for international migrants, 1960 and 2000

II.4

Contribution of net international migration to population change, by major region, 1960-1965 and 1995-2000

II.5

Countries or areas with 5 million inhabitants or more in 2000, by net migration status, 1950-2000

II.6

Admissions of immigrants to Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States, and their distribution by region of birth, 1960-2002

II.7

International migrants and refugees by major area, 1970-2000

II.8

Foreigners in selected European countries, 1980-2001

II.9

Foreigners of the major nationalities of origin, residing in the main countries of destination in Europe, by country of citizenship, 1980-2001

II.10

Main nationalities of origin of immigrants by country of destination, 2000

II.11

Immigrants and long-term migrant admissions by category, selected developed countries, 1991 and 2001

II.12

Skilled immigrants in selected countries, 1991, 1999 and 2001

II.13

Temporary workers admitted under the skills-based categories, selected countries, 1992-2000

II.14

Foreign participation in the labour force in selected European countries, 1990 and 2001

II.15

Labour-force participation by nationality and sex, selected developed countries, average for 2000-2001

II.16

International migrants in the members of the Gulf Cooperation Council, 1970-2000

II.17

International migrants in the major receiving countries of Latin America and the Caribbean, 1960-2000

II.18

Projected population with and without international migration by region, by major area, 2000 and 2050

II.19

Projected population to 2050 and dependency ratios with and without migration for selected countries or areas

II.20

Projections of net immigration for selected countries or regions, 2000-2050

III.1

Government views on the level of immigration, by country’s level of development and major areas, 1976, 1986, 1996 and 2003

III.2

Government policies on immigration, by country’s level of development and major areas, 1976, 1986, 1996 and 2003

III.3

Regularization programmes for undocumented migrants

III.4

Government views on the level of emigration, by country’s level of development and major areas, 1976, 1986, 1996 and 2003

III.5

Government policies on emigration, by country’s level of development and major areas, 1976, 1986, 1996 and 2003

IV.1

“Balance sheet” of economic effects of migration on countries of origin

IV.2

Countries or areas experiencing brain drain according to different reports

IV.3

Inflows of remittances by region, 1980-2002

IV.4

Distribution of foreign-born and native-born employees by major occupation in the United States, 2000

IV.5

Foreign-born labour force in selected OECD countries, 2000

V.1

Entry of temporary workers into selected developed countries, 1992-2001

V.2

Flows of temporary migrants from selected countries in Eastern and Southern Asia to Western Asia, 1980-1999

V.3

Types of natural persons supplying services (horizontal commitments), 2003

VI.1

Employment of foreign workers by sector, 2001-2002 average

VI.2

Unemployment rates of nationals and foreigners by sex, in selected OECD countries, 2000-2001 average

VII.1

Age distribution of refugees and other persons of concern to UNHCR, by region, 2003

VII.2

Voluntary repatriation of refugees by region of origin, 1994-2003

VII.3

Top 20 asylum-seeker receiving countries in Europe, 1994-2003

VIII.1

Number of Governments participating in regional consultative processes on international migration

VIII.2

Major United Nations legal instruments that make reference to international migration

VIII.3

Legal instruments relevant to international migration

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