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Kerala Development Report   
Sikkim Development Report
Published by Academic Foundation under arrangement with :
New Delhi.
Paper  Back Book   :   Pages : 222
2008  Edition         :   ISBN - 978-81-7188-668-5
Price : Rs. 695.00  : US$ 45.95;
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The Planning Commission has decided to prepare State Development Reports (SDRs) for all States and Union Territories of India. The objective in bringing out these reports is to provide a credible independent quality reference document on the development profile, set out strategies for accelerating the growth rate of States, lessen disparities and reduce poverty. The SDR is meant to discuss the constraints and challenges faced by a State and provide a vision, blueprint or a roadmap for its socioeconomic progress.

Each SDR is being prepared with the assistance of reputed national-level agencies, under the supervision of a core committee, headed by a Member of the Planning Commission, and including a senior representative of the State Government. The publication of the Maharashtra Development Report follows the recently published SDRs of Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu and Himachal Pradesh, while SDRs of many other States and Union Territories of India are under various stages of preparation.

The Sikkim Development Report attempts to assess the main strengths and weaknesses of the state in achieving a high level of development. Based on the analysis of the economy's fundamentals, it recommends a development strategy that takes into account the state's potential and builds on its strengths: a peaceful environment, diverse agro-climatic topography, supply of cheap labour and vast potential in tourism, hydro-power, and horticulture. The sustainable developmental strategy recommended will seek to (i) empower people by strengthening the social infrastructure, in the form of education and skill formation and easy access to good health systems, and physical infrastructure, such as a good connectivity and communications network, quality energy supply, and (ii) vastly changed role for the government as an enabler rather than a direct participant in the production-distribution processes.


Core Committee

Foreword from Deputy Chairman, Planning Commission

Message from Chief Minister, Sikkim

Message from Member, Planning Commission

List of Tables, Figures and Boxes


Executive Summary


1. Sikkim: Development Profile and Future Directions

1.1 Sikkim’s Performance at the National Level

1.2 Development of Social and Economic Infrastructure

1.3 Sikkim’s Development Profile in the Regional Context

1.4 Intrastate Development Trends

1.5 Objectives of State Development Report


2. Natural Resource Management and Sustainable Development

2.1 Resource Base

2.2 Waste and Pollution Management

2.3 Participatory Approach to Sustainable Development

2.4 Sikkim Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (SBSAP): A Critique

2.5 Recommendations


3. Economic Growth, Structural Change and Employment

3.1 Growth: Trend and Composition

3.2 Structural Change

3.3 Employment

3.4 Pattern and Composition of the Workforce

3.5 Workforce Participation and Trends in Employment

3.6 State No Longer a Major Employer

3.7 Ensuring Livelihood to All

3.8 Ensuring Regionally Balanced Growth

3.9 Assessing the Growth in the Labour Force

3.10 Growing Unemployment: Migration to Urban Centres

3.11 Strategies for Employment Generation

3.12 Elements of an Employment Oriented Strategy

3.13 Employment Generating Schemes

3.14 Recent Initiatives of the Government

3.15 Conclusions and Recommendations


4. Fiscal and Financial Management

4.1 State’s Own Resources: Tax Revenues

4.2 State’s Own Resources: Non-tax Revenues

4.3 Transfers from the Centre

4.4 Borrowing Requirements

4.5 Utilisation of Resources: Trends in Expenditure

4.6 Fiscal Reform Programme and MTFRP

4.7 Deficits and Debt

4.8 Fiscal Decentralisation

4.9 Recommendations and Conclusions


5. Education

5.1 Educational Institutions

5.2 Effective Literacy Rates

5.3 Plan Expenditure on Education

5.4 Educational Infrastructure

5.5 Accessibility to Elementary Education

5.6 Quality of Education

5.7 Teacher Recruitment Policy

5.8 Higher and Technical/Professional Education

5.9 Smart School Concept

5.10 Subsidies and Privatisation

5.11 Library Facilities

5.12 Investment in Education and Employment Prospects

5.13 Recommendations


6. Health

6.1 Sex Ratio Intrigues

6.2 Plan Expenditure on Health

6.3 Poverty and Malnutrition

6.4 Reproductive Health Related Issues

6.5 Status of Immunisation

6.6 Environmental Sanitation

6.7 Health Infrastructure

6.8 Utilisation of Health Services

6.9 Traditional Medicines

6.10 Major Morbidity Cases

6.11 Geography and Environment

6.12 Urban Environment and Sanitation: AusAid Intervention

6.13 Sikkim Manipal University: Changing Face of the Health Sector

6.14 Health Insurance

6.15 Recommendations


7. Infrastructure: Roads, Telecommunications and Power

7.1 Importance of Basic Infrastructure

7.2 The Road Network

7.3 Transport

7.4 Telecommunications and Information Technology

7.5 Power Development: Structure, Potentials and Challenges

7.6 Recommendations


8. Agriculture, Horticulture and Animal Husbandry

8.1 The Nature of Agriculture and Related Sectors in the State

8.2 Agriculture and Horticulture: Issues and Constraints

8.3 Agriculture and Horticulture: Recommendations

8.4 Animal Husbandry: Analysis and Recommendations


9. Industry and Trade

9.1 Importance of Industry and Trade

9.2 Status of Industry

9.3 ‘Sickness Syndrome’

9.4 Identifying Appropriate Industries

9.5 Policy Initiatives—Present and Past: A Critical Analysis

9.6 Newer Approaches


10. Tourism

10.1 The Potential for Tourism

10.2 Importance for Balanced Growth: The Multiplier and Leakages

10.3 An Analysis of Tourist Traffic

10.4 Overall Strategy for Developing Tourism

10.5 Sustainability: Focus on Non-mass Market Tourism

10.6. Recommendations

10.7 Agreement with China


11. Rural Development.

11.1 Economic Profile of the Rural Sector

11.2 Rural Infrastructure

11.3 Community Development and Panchayati Raj Institutions

11.4 Schemes and Programmes for Rural Development: A Critical Analysis

11.5 Recommendations


12. Development of Forest Resources

12.1 Background

12.2 Emerging Issues

12.3 Joint Forest Management

12.4 Recommendations


13. Urban Development

13.1 The Current Pattern of Urban Growth and Development

13.2 Gangtok: An Appraisal of the City’s Development

13.3 Other Urban Areas

13.4 Recommendations


14. Development of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes

14.1 Ethnic Groups in Sikkim

14.2 Analysis of Some Basic Statistics

14.3 Schemes and Programmes for Development of SC, ST, and OBC Communities

14.4 Sikkim Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and
Other Backward Classes Development Corporation (SABCCO)

14.5 Initiatives Taken by the State

14.6 Recommendations



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