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Economic Freedom of the World - 2004 Annual Report   
Indian Economy and Society in the Era of Globalisation and Liberalisation
Hard Bound Book   :   Pages : 439
2005  Edition         :   ISBN - 81-7188-420-2
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The late eminent economist A.M. Khusro was a Professor at the Institute of Economic Growth right from its inception, and his association with the IEG continued till the end. As a token of gratitude, the members of the IEG family decided to pay an affectionate tribute to the departed colleague and teacher by bringing out a volume containing research papers pertaining to several themes that were cherished and valued by him.

All the contributors to this volume have been members of IEG’s faculty/alumnus and have made important contributions in the respective field during their affiliation to the IEG. The themes covered in this volume include topics on which Prof. Khusro had worked and also emerging research areas where he wished to see the involvement of IEG’s faculty. The themes included in this volume cover both — established as well as new areas of research, and are presented together in six sections :

      • Agriculture, Land Reforms and Anti-Poverty Programmes
      • Environment
      • Globalisation, Liberalisation and Trade
      • Macro Models and Growth,
      • Population
      • Secularism and Religion

The volume begins with Agriculture, Land Reforms and Anti-Poverty Programmes as Prof. Khusro began his career at IEG, investigating these problems. He retained his interest in these areas, in particular, on issues relating to poverty. The next theme on Environment is closely related to the broad theme, Agriculture and Poverty. The papers included under this relate to newly emerging interdisciplinary research focusing on ecology, economics and environment, gender and community forestry, and the cleaning of our rivers. Environment is one of the two themes in which Prof. Khusro wanted the IEG to expand its research activities. The other theme is Globalisation, Liberalisation and Trade. The papers included in this section deal with the impact of liberalisation and the World Trade Organisation regime on the quantity and quality of foreign direct investments, exports, productivity, and growth of firms.

The next three themes viz. Macro Models and Growth, Population and Secularism and Religion are areas where IEG has a tradition of undertaking several important research studies with distinction since its very inception. However, over the years the focus on these themes has changed and papers included in this volume reflect that change. Studies on secularism and religion were always close to Prof. Khusro’s heart.

We hope, the essays in this volume would stimulate interest in research and will prove useful not only to policymakers and researchers but also to students interested in these varied themes.


C.H. Hanumantha Rao is presently Honorary Professor and Chairman, Institute of Economic Growth (IEG), University of Delhi, and Centre for Economic and Social Studies (CESS), Hyderabad. He is also Member, National Advisory Council.

B.B. Bhattacharya is currently Director of the Institute of Economic Growth (IEG), Delhi.

N.S. Siddharthan is Head, V.K.R.V. Rao Centre for Studies in Globalisation, Institute of Economic Growth, Delhi.


Contributors to the Volume
Professor A.M. Khusro: A Tribute
N.S. Siddharthan
Professor A.M. Khusro's Article
Professor A.M. Khusro's Books
PhD Theses Awarded Under the Supervision of Prof. A.M. Khusro

Section I
Agriculture, Land Reform
and Anti-poverty Programmes

1. Indian Agriculture: Emerging Perspectives and Major Policy Issues
Backdrop and the Winds of Change
Emerging Perspectives and Goals of Agricultural Policy
Agricultural Performance: Investment, Growth and Productivity
Prime Movers of Growth
Institutional Reforms
Concluding Remarks
2. Sustainable Livestock Development in India
Livestock Production Systems
Mixed Farming System in India
Livestock Biodiversity
Sustainable Development Strategy
Information Base and Socio-Economic Research
  Concluding Observations
3. Land System and its Reforms in India
Land Reforms Programme in Post-independent India
Impact of Structural Reorganisation
Emerging Perspectives and Policy Issues
4. Public Works as an Anti-Poverty Programme: An Overview of Cross- Country Experience
Public Works: An Overview of Conceptual Issues
Public Works: Cross-Country Experience

Section II

5. Economics, Ecology and the Environment: A Developing Country Perspective
Economics and the Environment
Outstanding Issues, Ecological Economics and the Study of Natural Systems
Valuation of Environmental Resources and Institutions: Economics, Sociology and Anthropology
Future Directions
6. Hidden Dimensions of Community Forestry in South Asia: A Gender Analysis
Gendered Outcomes: Participation, Equity and Efficiency
What Determines Gendered Outcomes?
Improving Outcomes for Women: The Bargaining Framework
7. Cost Benefit Analysis of Cleaning Ganges: Some Emerging Environment and Development Issues
Benefits and Beneficiaries from Cleaning Ganges
Estimation of Benefits and Costs of GAP
Estimates of Social Benefits of GAP
Sustainability of Processes of Cleaning Ganges

Section III
Globalisation, Liberalisation and Trade

8. Host Country Policies and Quality and Quantity of Foreign Direct Investments: Implications for India
Role of Host Country Policies on Different Aspects of MNE Activity: A Note on Analytical Frameworks and Hypotheses
Quantitative Analysis and Findings
Concluding Remarks: India’s Response to Globalisation and WTO
9. India’s Agro Export Performance and Competitiveness in Changed International Scenario
Analytical Tools and Methodology
Trade Performance
Trade Competitiveness and Prospects
Behaviour of International Prices
Conclusions, Export Strategy and Policy Implications
10. Liberalisation, Multinational Enterprises and Export Performance: Evidence from Indian Manufacturing
MNE Affiliates, Exports and Policy Regime: Hypotheses
The Model
Empirical Results
11. Import Liberalisation and Productivity Growth in Indian Manufacturing Industries in the 1990s
Effect of Import Liberalisation on Industrial Productivity
Productivity Growth in Indian Manufacturing
Econometric Analysis of Productivity Growth Rates
Capacity Utilisation and Productivity
12. Liberalisation and Growth of Firms in India
Analytical Framework
Sample and Variables
Statistical Results

Section IV
Macro Models and Growth

13. Five Decades of Macroeconometric Modelling Research for India : A Synoptic View
Evolution of Econometric Models
Some Theoretical and Empirical Issues
Forecasting and Policy Use of Models
Future Agenda: Some Suggestions
Concluding Observations
14. Growth and Macroeconomic Imbalances in India
Linkages Between Growth and Fiscal and External Balances
Trends in Fiscal and External Deficits in India
Analysis Through a Macromodel
Concluding Remarks

Section V

15. Evolution of Census of India: 1872 – 2001
Importance of Census
Census Under British Rule
Censuses in Post-independence Era
Electronic Data Processing
Dissemination of Census Data
The Future
16. Reciprocity between Female Education and Fertility in India
Measurement Issues
Trends in Fertility Differentials by Education
Effect of Family Size on Child Schooling
17. RCH-care Utilisation and Fertility in India: An Integrated Recursive Model
Structural Formulation of the Model
Parametric Estimates of the Model
Partial and Total Effects of Predetermined Variables on Endogenous Variables
Summary and Concluding Remarks

Section VI

18. Whither Indian Secularism? Some Reflections
19. Freedom of Religion

Contributors to this Volume

C.H. Hanumantha Rao
is, at present, Honorary Professor and Chairman, Institute of Economic Growth, University of Delhi, and Centre for Economic and Social Studies, Hyderabad; and member of the National Advisory Council. Prof. Rao did his Ph.D. from the University of Delhi in 1962 and was a Post-Doctoral Fellow, at the Department of Economics, University of Chicago, during 1966-67. He worked at the Institute of Economic Growth, University of Delhi (1961-92). He published over 100 research papers in professional journals, and several books including Technological Change and Distribution of Gains in Indian Agriculture (1975) and Agricultural Growth, Rural Poverty and Environmental Degradation in India (1994). Prof. Rao was awarded Rafi Ahmed Kidwai Memorial Prize for 1974-75, by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research, for Outstanding Contribution in the field of Agricultural Economics; received H.K. Batheja Award for the Best Book published in Economics in India during 1993-94; and received the Financial Express Award in 1995 for Lifetime Work in Economics. Prof. Rao was a member, Seventh and Eighth Finance Commission; member, Planning Commission, 1982-86; and member, Economic Advisory Council to the Prime Minister, 1982-84. He also served on several other expert committees appointed by the Government of India, including as Chairman, National Commission on Rural Labour, 1990-91; Chairman, Technical Committee on DPAP & DDP, 1993-94; Chairman High Powered Fertilisers Pricing Policy Review Committee, 1997-98; and Member, Board of Directors, Reserve Bank of India, 1994-2000. He also served as member, Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), 1997-98. He was President, the Indian Society of Agricultural Economics, 1989; The Indian Society of Labour Economics, 1995; and the Indian Society of Ecological Economics, 2000-2001. He was awarded 'Padma Bhushan' by the President of India in 2004.

B.B. Bhattacharya
is currently Director of the Institute of Economic Growth (IEG), Delhi, a premier social science research and training institute in India. Ph.D. in Economics (1971) from Delhi School of Economics, University of Delhi and Ford Foundation Post-Doctoral Scholar of University of California, Berkeley (1980-81), Prof. Bhattacharya specialises in econometric modelling and forecasting, macroeconomics, monetary economics, development economics, public finance and international finance. A leading expert in econometric modelling and forecasting, his forecasts and analysis are frequently quoted by both print and electronic media and are used by the Central and the State Governments and national and international agencies, such as the Reserve Bank of India and the World Bank. He has published seven books and more than 50 technical papers in national and international journals. Prof. Bhattacharya has, over the years, held several distinguished positions in many learned societies and institutions. He was President of the Indian Econometric Society (2003-04); served as member of many important committees and commissions of the Government of India, Planning Commission and the Reserve Bank of India; was the Chairman of the Government of India (Ministry of Agriculture) Committee to review Capital Formation in Agriculture and member of the National Statistical Commission, Planning Commission Working Group for Estimation of Resources for the Tenth Five Year Plan and Steel Ministry Core Task Group for Steel Policy 2020. Currently, he is the President of the Indian Association of Research in National Income and Wealth and member of the Editorial Board of the Indian Economic Journal, Indian Journal of Economics and the Journal of Income and Wealth. He is Chairman of the Government of India Expert Committee on the International Comparison Programme, and member of the Central Statistical Organisation Advisory Committee for National Accounts and Ministry of Employment Working Group on Employment Monitoring.

N.S. Siddharthan,
Ph.D., is Head, V.K.R.V. Rao Centre for Studies in Globalisation, Institute of Economic Growth, Delhi. He works in the areas of technology, multinationals, and globalisation. His research studies have appeared in journals such as, The Economic Journal, Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, The Journal of Development Studies, Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Applied Economics, Development and Change, Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, Journal of Business Venturing, Japan and the World Economy, International Business Review, Developing Economies, Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, Transnational Corporations, The Indian Economic Review, and Economic and Political Weekly. He also has to his credit a number of books published by reputed publishing houses in India and abroad. Dr. Siddharthan has ongoing and past collaborations in research with several Institutions that include Hitotsubashi University, Tokyo; Institute of Developing Economies, Tokyo; Erasmus University, Rotterdam; United Nations University INTECH, Maastricht, The Netherlands; University of Toronto, Canada; Georgetown University, Washington DC, USA; University of Oxford, UK; and University of Antwerp, Belgium.

Ashok Gulati,
earlier Head of the NABARD Chair Unit at the Institute of Economic Growth, is presently the Director of International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) in Washington, D.C., U.S.A. Prof. Gulati's research has been on agriculture and rural development, and he has published several books and a large number of papers in professional journals. He has served a number of international organisations and has worked as a member for several committees of the Government of India.

S.N. Mishra
graduated in science from Benaras Hindu University, did his M.A. in economics from Gorakhpur University, and Ph.D. from Delhi University in 1966. In early 1970s he did his post-doctoral work at the Centre for Development Planning, Erasmus University, Rotterdam. Much of his professional career was spent at the Institute of Economic Growth, where he was appointed Professor of Economics in 1976, and later served as Director (1990-95). In the late 1980s and 1990s he had teaching professorship at the University of Tokyo and Hosei University respectively. Apart from scores of research papers Dr. Mishra has ten books to his credit, of which one is edited for the ICSSR. Currently as Chairman of the Society for Economic and Social Research (SESR), he is actively working in the field of environment and livestock.

S.K. Ray
was former NABARD Chair Professor and Head, Agricultural Economics Research Unit at Institute of Economic Growth, Delhi. His area of research has been agriculture and rural development. He has published several books and a large number of papers in professional journals. Prof. Ray has served a number of international organisations and has worked as a member for several committees of the Government of India, the Reserve Bank of India and the NABARD.

Kanchan Chopra
is Professor at the Institute of Economic Growth, Delhi and heads the Environmental and Resource Unit. In the last two decades, she has published extensively on issues at the interface of environment and development, in particular water and forest resource management and common property resources. She is Associate Editor, Environment and Development Economics, and member, Editorial Advisory Board, Ecological Economics. Prof. Chopra is an Associate of the lately initiated Ecological and Environmental Economics Programme of the Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics hosted by the ICTP, Trieste. She was one of the Founder members of the Indian Society for Ecological Economics and its First President. Currently she is also Member, Assessment Panel of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, an assessment supported internationally by UNEP, World Bank and other international bodies 2001-2005 and Member, Advisory and Management Committee, South Asian Network on Development and Environmental Economics. She is President for the 64th Conference of the Indian Society of Agricultural Economics (December 2004).

Bina Agarwal
is Professor of Economics at the Institute of Economic Growth, Delhi. She is also Vice-President of the International Economic Association and President of the International Association for Feminist Economics. She has held distinguished positions at Harvard, Columbia, Michigan and Minnesota. She has authored three books and edited five. Her book A Field of One's Own: Gender and Land Rights in South Asia (Cambridge University Press, 1994) won the A.K. Coomaraswamy Book Prize 1996; the Edgar Graham Book Prize 1996; and the K.H. Batheja Award 1995-96. She was the first Asian to win the first two awards. In 2002, she received the Malcolm Adhiseshiah award for distinguished contributions to Development Studies. She is currently working on some theoretical and empirical aspects of gender, environment and collective action.

Anil Markandya
is an economist who has worked in the environmental field for over twenty five years. He obtained his doctorate from the London School of Economics in 1974 with a thesis on the Economics of Pollution. Since then he has taught at University College, London, at universities in Australia, France, Italy and United States. From 1992 to 1996 he was Research Associate at the Harvard Institute of International Development and a Faculty Associate from 1996-1998. In April 1996, he took up the Chair of Economics at Bath University in the UK. Professor Markandya has been an advisor to several governments on environmental, health and related issues, as well as to international bodies such as OECD, the World Bank, the European Commission and the regional development banks. On climate change he has been advising UNEP, as well as the Asian Development Bank and the European Commission. His consultancy work is carried out through Metroeconomica Ltd., a company, which he founded in 1983 and of which he is director. He is author of around two hundred books, monographs, articles and reports on environmental economics, including the landmark "Blueprint for a Green Economy" (1989) and contributions to the United Nations Agenda 21 proceedings on "Financing Sustainable Development".

M.N. Murty
is currently Professor of Economics at Institute of Economic Growth, Delhi. He is author of seven books and has published a number of research papers in the reputed international and national journals in the areas of Environmental Economics and Public Economics. He has teaching experience at University of Birmingham, U.K., Jawharlal Nehru University, and Delhi University.

Nagesh Kumar
is Director-General of Research and Information System for the Non-aligned and Other Developing Countries (RIS), New Delhi. Ph.D. in Economics from Delhi School of Economics, Dr. Kumar has previously served the United Nations University-Institute for New Technologies, Maastricht, the Netherlands, directing its research programme on Globalisation, FDI and technology transfers. He has also been a consultant to the World Bank, ADB, UNCTAD, UNIDO, UN-ESCAP, ILO, among others. Recipient of the Exim Bank's first Trade Research Award and a GDN Research Medal, Dr. Kumar has written extensively on developmental impact of FDI, regional economic integration in Asia, WTO and development, new technologies and development, among other themes and is a co-editor of South Asia Economic Journal.

Ramesh Chand
is currently Professor and Head - Agricultural Economics Unit at Institute of Economic Growth, Delhi. He was Principal Economist at National Centre for Agricultural Economics and Policy Research (Indian Council of Agricultural Research) from 1996 to 2002 and before that he has worked as Professor of Marketing at Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana. He was Visiting Professor at University of Wollongong, NSW Australia (2000) and Visiting Fellow at Institute of Developing Economies, Chiba Shi, Japan (2003). Ph.D. in Agricultural Economics from Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, Prof. Ramesh Chand's thesis was selected for Jawaharlal Nehru Award of Indian Council of Agricultural Research in recognition of its outstanding Research contributions. He worked as consultant for FAO, ESCAP, World Bank, Indian Institute of Foreign Trade, Delhi and Government of Punjab. He is presently engaged in research on Trade Liberalisation, WTO and Asian Agriculture, Food Policy and Development Economics. He has authored five books and 55 research papers.

Aradhna Aggarwal
is Reader in Economics at Kirori Mal College, University of Delhi. She has also been working as Senior Fellow, Consultant for the Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations (ICRIER) since 2001. She earned her Ph.D. in Economics from Delhi School of Economics, University of Delhi. Her thesis was awarded the prestigious Professor Chhablani prize in recognition of its research contributions. She is also a recipient of the 'Global Development Network' (GDN) award for her research paper on technology. Her research interests include international trade, FDI, technology transfer, R&D, WTO-related issues and economic reforms. She has made presentations at several international conferences. Her work has appeared in World Development, Journal of Development Studies, Research Policy, Transnational Corporation and Technology in Society.

Bishwanath Goldar
(M.A. and Ph.D. from Delhi School of Economics) is a Professor of Economics at the Institute of Economic Growth, Delhi. He specialises in industrial economics, international trade and environmental economics. He has written a book, several reports and a large number of papers, including some published in international professional journals, on productivity, employment and wages in Indian industries, protection of Indian industries, trade reforms, water pollution, contingent valuation, arsenic contamination of groundwater, and trade in health services.

Anita Kumari,
Ph.D. in Economics from University of Delhi, has been a researcher at the Institute of Economic Growth (IEG), Delhi. She is currently a SRT fellow at the IEG. She has published several papers in academic journals and books.

K. Lal,
earlier a Reader at the Institute of Economic Growth, is presently working as Researcher at the United Nations University, Institute for New Technologies (UNU/INTECH), Maastricht, The Netherlands. His area of specialisation is information technology and development. He has published several papers in Journals like World Development, Research Policy, Information Economics and Policy, Information Society, and Science Technology and Development.

K. Subbarao,
until 1988, was on the faculty of the Institute of Economic Growth. During 1981-83, he was a visiting fellow at the University of California at Berkeley. He joined the World Bank Group in December 1988. He recently retired from the Bank as its Lead Economist for the Africa Region, responsible for analytical work on poverty and social protection. Dr. Subbarao's extensive research work included equity and efficiency implications of government interventions in grain markets, income distributional implications of agricultural price policy interventions in India, and on anti-poverty programmes. At the Bank, Dr. Subbarao has played a major role in both analytical and policy work on poverty, particularly in the domain of safety nets and anti-poverty programmes in many countries of Asia and Africa.

K. Krishnamurty
had a long tenure as Professor, and for some years as Director, at the Institute of Economic Growth. He is currently Honorary Professor at the Administrative Staff College of India, Hyderabad. Earlier, he has been on the research staff of the World Bank and the IMF. He was President of the Indian Econometric Society and also of the Andhra Pradesh Economic Association. Krishnamurty's research is largely focussed on India. His contributions lie in the areas of macro econometric modelling, consumption, savings, investment and external trade behaviour; and international trade in primary commodities. He has several research publications to his credit and has served on the editorial committees of Indian and international academic journals beside having supervised M.Phil. and Ph.D. dissertations. He has been associated with several committees of government and academic institutions.

Sabyasachi Kar
is a faculty at the Institute of Economic Growth, Delhi. His interests are in macroeconomics and development economics with particular focus on the Indian economy. In the last few years, he has been working on the Indian macro-economy and presented forecasts and policy analysis of the economy on a regular basis. He also studies regional issues within the Indian economy and has a number of publications from his research. Dr. Kar teaches growth economics, regional economics and macro-modelling techniques at the institute. He is a consultant to the Global Development Network (GDN) and a member of the advisory committee to the ASSOCHAM.

Ashish Bose
is Honorary Professor at the Institute of Economic Growth, Delhi. He is also Distinguished Professor at the Institute for Integrated Learning in Management (IILM), New Delhi. Currently, he is Chairman of the Expert Committee on "Census Data on Religion", appointed by the National Commission on Minorities. He is also a member of the Independent Commission on Development and Health in India. He was formerly Jawaharlal Nehru National Fellow.

P.N. Mari Bhat
is a Professor at the Population Research Centre, Institute of Economic Growth Delhi. Earlier, he was Director, Population Research Centre, Dharwad and Associate Fellow at the Centre for Development Studies, Thiruvananathapuram. Educated in the Universities at Mysore, Andhra and Pennsylvania, he is an internationally known expert in Indian demography. He has served as consultant to several UN Organisations and been visiting faculty at Harvard, Minnesota and Manitoba. He has authored over fifty articles in reputed national and international journals and co-authored a book on Indian Vital Rates published by the National Academy of Sciences, USA.

S.C. Gulati
is Professor at the Population Research Centre, Institute of Economic Growth, Delhi. He specialises in econometrics and population-development-environment studies. He has authored and co-authored several books including 'Fertility in India: An Econometric Analysis of a Metropolis'; 'Women's Status and Reproductive Health Rights'; 'Contraceptive Use in India'; 'Migration, Common Property Resources and Environmental Degradation'; and 'Reproductive Health in Delhi Slums'. He has published several articles in national and international journals on population, development and environmental issues.

P.C Joshi
is a leading social scientist widely known for his contributions to studies on development and social change in India from a radical perspective. He was Professor and Director, Institute of Economic Growth; and also President of the Society for Labour Economics; President of the Indian Sociological Society; Chairman, Software Committee for Doordarshan; Member, National Commission for Rural Labour and Jawaharlal Nehru National Fellow. He is the author of numerous works in English and Hindi, including Land Reforms in India (1975); Culture, Communication and Social Change (1989); Secularism and Development: The Indian Experiment (1995); Mahatma Gandhi: The New Economic Agenda (1996); Social Science and Development: Quest for Relevance (1996); Communication and National Development (2002); Prominent among his work in Hindi are: Bhartiya Gram (1966); Parivartan Aur Vikas Ke Sanskritic Ayam (1995); Swapna Aur Yathartha (2000).

T.N. Madan,
Ph.D. in Social Anthropology from Australian National University, is presently Honorary Treasurer, Institute of Economic Growth, Delhi and Chairman, Centre for Study of Developing Societies, Delhi. Dr. Madan has been a visiting Professor at several foreign universities. He has contributed significantly as an author as well as in senior editorial capacities to various reputed national and international journals. Recipient of innumerable awards and honours for his academic contributions, Dr. Madan has also authored, co-authored and edited a large number of books and he continues to write actively as an expert on various socio anthropological issues. His forthcoming books include Marriage, Family and the Household : Select Essays (OUP), and Religion in the Modern World and Other Essays.
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