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Kerala Development Report   
Kerala Development Report
Published by Academic Foundation under arrangement with :
PLANNING COMMISSION,
GOVERNMENT OF INDIA,
New Delhi.
Paper  Back Book   :   Pages : 476
2008  Edition         :   ISBN - 81-7188-594-2
Price : Rs. 995.00  : US$ 69.95;
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ABOUT THE BOOK :

The Planning Commission has decided to prepare State Development Reports (SDRs) for all States and Union Territories of India. The objective in bringing out these reports is to provide a credible independent quality reference document on the development profile, set out strategies for accelerating the growth rate of States, lessen disparities and reduce poverty. The SDR is meant to discuss the constraints and challenges faced by a State and provide a vision, blueprint or a roadmap for its socioeconomic progress.

Each SDR is being prepared with the assistance of reputed national-level agencies, under the supervision of a core committee, headed by a Member of the Planning Commission, and including a senior representative of the State Government. The publication of the Maharashtra Development Report follows the recently published SDRs of Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu and Himachal Pradesh, while SDRs of many other States and Union Territories of India are under various stages of preparation.

The Kerala Development Report reviews the course of development of the State and the aspects in which the State holds a unique position among the States and Union Territories in India, such as universalisation of school education, reduction in fertility and mortality rates, development of health- care sector, growth of infrastructural facilities and expansion of financial institutions, It has also highlighted the pitfalls on its road to progress such as declining agriculture, stagnating industry, mounting unemployment and growing consumerism. The great strength of conviction that the State has acquired through incessant social reform struggles, progressive political movements, and land reform legislations is lending support to its pace of progress along egalitarian lines. The merging conflicts in the matters of private partnership in educational development, reservations to depressed communities in educational institutions and in government services, and participation of foreign investors in Kerala's development endeavours have added new dimensions to the path and pace of progress that the State may choose to tread. New problems that have arisen due to its spectacular success in bringing out a demographic transition such as the mounting proportions of the elderly and the aged in the State's population have also been highlighted in the report. The SDR of Kerala has also furnished a roadmap to development that the State may like to pursue in important economic sectors such as agriculture, traditional and small-scale industries and modern manufacturing industries.


CONTENTS IN DETAIL :

Core Committee

Message from Chief Minister, Kerala

Message from Member, Planning Commission

List of Tables, Figures and Boxes

Preface and Acknowledgements

Executive Summary

 

1. Geographical and Historical Features

Location

Geography and Physical Features

Land Use Pattern

Forests

Water Resources

Fisheries

Minerals

Energy

Historical Movements and Economic Processes

Matriliny

Land Tenures

Agriculture

Population Growth and Demographic Transition

Education

Healthcare

Public Health

Political Activity

Developments Since 1951

Political Development

Land Tenure

Population Growth and Demographic Change

Education

Healthcare

Agriculture

Industry

Emigration

The Development Vision

The Tenth Five Year Plan of Kerala

 

2. Demographic Transition

Introduction

Population Size and Growth

Mortality and Life Expectancy

Fertility

District Level Differentials

Socioeconomic Determinants of Demographic Transition

Universal Immunisation Programme

Universal (Total) Literacy Campaign

World Bank Population Project (IPP-III), Kerala

Gulf Migration

Other Determinants of the Demographic Transition

Population Growth in the 21st Century

Population Stabilisation and Zero Population Growth

Changing Age Structure

Educational Planning

Labour Force

Marriage Squeeze

The Elderly

Conclusions

 

3. Growth and Employment

Economic Growth and Structural Change

Employment and Unemployment of the Educated

 

4. Financial Services and Fiscal Reforms

I. Financial Profile

Literature on Kerala Finances: A Brief Overview

Fiscal Scenario of All States

Structure of Kerala’s Revenue

Structure of Public Expenditure

Fiscal Health of the State

Debt Outstanding and Interest Obligations

Investment Activity Including Credit Flow

Government of India Investment

Foreign Investment in Kerala

Structure of State Finances

Composition of Kerala’s Revenue

Budgetary Trends

Trends in Public debt

Concluding Observations

II. Financial Services

Introduction

The Financial System

The Approach and Scope

The Supply Side: Fund Mobilisation

Financial Services Sector in Kerala: Mobilisation of Resources

The Demand Side Asset Creation

Other Constituents of Financial Services Sector

Deployment of Funds

Conclusion

III. Fiscal Reforms in Kerala: Options and Sources

Suggestions for Tax Reform

Stamps and Registration

Non-Tax Revenue Sources

Issues Relating to Expenditure Management and Debt Management

An Outline of the Medium Term Fiscal Framework of Kerala

 

5. Agriculture

Topography, Climate and Soil

Land Utilisation Pattern

Size of Operational Holdings

Cropping Pattern

Productivity

Production Trends of Major Crops

Contribution of Area and Yield to Production

Price Parity and Profitability

Share of Agriculture in State Income

Irrigation

Major Commodity Profiles

Livestock

Fisheries

Perspective

Cooperatives

Structure

 

6. Industrial Development

Introduction

Industrial Needs

Reaching Per Capita ISDP Levels of

Leading Indian States

Removal of Unemployment Backlog

Matching Future Power Consumption Needs

Alternative Projections: A Summary

The Current Status and the Gap

SDP Growth

Industrial Profile

Traditional Industries

Public Sector

Industrial Exports

Pattern of Investment

Plan Expenditures in Industry Sector

Industrial Climate

Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)

SSI Units

Medium & Large Units

Support Systems

SSI Cooperatives

KSIDC

Other Support Agencies

Administrative Agencies

Recent Support Efforts

The Gap

Industrial Development Policy Under the Plans

New Industrial Policies and Initiatives

Industrial Promotion Agencies

Suggestions for Effective Promotional Support

Industrial Constraints

Development of Traditional Industries

Task Ahead

Conclusions

 

7. Infrastructure

Section I: Transport

Roads

Public Transport

Road Development Policy of the Government

Recent Achievements in Road Transport

Research and Development in Road Sector

Water Transport

Railways

Air Transport

Shipping and Ports

Vision for Development—On the Road to the Future

Section II: Power

Introduction

Kerala’s Power Sector Development: An Overview

Sectoral Demands for Power in Kerala: Consumer Groups

Pattern of Power Consumption and Revenue Realisations

Transmission and Distribution

Inadequacies

Financial Requirements

Prospects: Power Sector Development Programme in the 10th Five Year Plan

Alternatives: Development of Renewable Sources of Energy:

Power Sector Reforms in Kerala

Policy Suggestions

Section III: Water Supply

Introduction

Water Resources of Kerala

Water Policies of Kerala

Evolution of Water Supply Schemes in Kerala

Organisational Set up

Evaluation of the KWA Set up

Project and Materials Management in KWA

Financial Performance of KWA

Water-Supply Schemes

Demand for and Supply of Water

Self-financing of Water-Supply Schemes and Policies of Water Pricing: Relevance to Kerala

Performance of RWSS - Operated by Beneficiary Groups

Evaluation of Present System and Future Strategies

Section IV: Telecommunications

Introduction

Brief History of Telecommunications in Kerala

Service Providers

Telephone Connections

Tele-density

Revenue

Village Public Telephones, Public Call Offices

Waiting List for Telephone Connections

Emerging Communication Services and Their Impact on Infrastructure Planning

Internet Service

BSNL and MTNL Broadband Connections

Postal Communication

Opportunities and Challenges

Recommendations

 

8. Education

Section I: School Education

Introduction

Progress of Literacy

Pre-primary Education

Primary and Secondary Education

Uneconomic Schools

Higher Secondary Education

Private Participation

Facilities in Schools

Computer Education in Schools

Girls’ Education

Quality of Education

Vocational Education

Education for the Weaker Sections

Science and Environmental Education

Teacher Education and Training

Decentralisation of School Education

Expenditure on School Education

Cost of Education

Conclusion

Section II: Higher Education

Introduction

Institutions of Higher Learning: Growth Patterns

Profile of Student Enrolment and Faculty Resources

Faculty and Non-Faculty Resources

The Quality of Higher Education: Discernible Trends

State Higher Education Policies: Changing Budgetary Emphasis

 

9. Science and Technology

Introduction

Science and Technology Institutions

Analysis of Research Done by Various Institutions under KSCSTE

Other Major Institutions in Kerala

Analysis of S&T Sector in Kerala

Distribution of Plan Outlay

Economic Viability of Institutions

S&T Development in Kerala: A Road Map

Areas of Future Development

Knowledge Management Systems

 

10. Healthcare

Evolution of Health Status

Healthcare in Kerala

Access to, and Utilisation and Cost of Healthcare

Summing Up

 

11. Food Security and Public Distribution

Trends in Food Production and Food Availability

Trends in the Consumption of Cereals and Cereal Substitutes

Trends in Calorie Intake

Sources of Calorie Intake

Trends in Food Expenditure

Price, Income and Taste

Shift to ‘Other’ Foods: A Further Exploration

The Public Distribution System

The School-Feeding Programme

Supplementary Nutrition for Pre-School Children and Nursing Mothers

Food Distribution through the Civil Supplies Corporation

Food Distribution through Fair Price Shops

The Impact of Targeting

Dependence on the Open Market

Summary and Implications

 

12. Ageing and Social Security

Introduction

Population Ageing: Inter-state Analysis

Ageing in Kerala

Dependency Ratios

Migration Surveys, 1999 and 2004

Social Security

Agricultural Workers Pension Scheme

The State of Civil Service Pension in Kerala

Concluding Observations

 

13. Outlier Communities

A) Adivasi Communities

Demographic Features

Literacy: Efforts to be Strengthened

Adivasi Settlements as Pockets of Poverty?

Labouring Hard but in Non-Accumulative Domains?

Land Alienation

Adivasi Land Question: Derailing the Law and the Constitution

Land Reforms and the Redistribution of Surplus Land

Land Struggles and the Question of Autonomy: The New Turn

Decentralisation and the SC/ST Population

Failure of Welfare Measures

Conclusions

B) Marine Fishing Communities

Introduction

Is Change Possible?

The Aggregate Picture

What’s to be done?

How to Improve Incomes

Measures to Improve Quality of Life

Conclusion

 

14. Migration and Development

Introduction

Design of SMS

Dimensions of Emigration

Demographic Dimensions

Geographic Dimensions

Remittances

Total Remittances

Geographical Aspect of Remittances

Remittances by Religion

Remittances by Community

Human Resources

Emigration and Acquisition of Consumer Durables

Economic Consequences of Emigration

 

15. Gender and Development

Women’s Autonomy

Contemporary Trends in Education and Employment

Industrial and Occupational Structure

Gender and Migration

Demographic and Health Status of Women

Violence against Women

Women’s Property Rights

Gender Budget Initiatives and Decentralised Planning

Socioeconomic Conditions of Elderly Women

 

16. Tourism

Introduction

Tourism in India

Tourism in Kerala

Kerala Tourism – Through The Years

Tourism Experience of Kerala

Tourism Institutions in the State

Modified Tourism Policy in the State

Tourism Vision 2025

Central Financial Assistance for Promotion of Tourism in Kerala

Conclusion

 

17. Local Self-government

Setting the Environment

Methodology of Participatory Planning

The Outcome

Participation

Resource Mobilisation and Expenditure

Prioritisation and Resource Allocation

Development Impact

Lessons of Democratic Decentralisation in Kerala

 

18. Governance at the State Level

Information Technology Policies

Infrastructure

Major E-governance Initiatives

Initiatives in Various Government Departments

Efficiency Assessment

Concurrent Monitoring

Feedback from Citizens

Performance and Reward

Way Forward

Grievance Redressal

The Kerala Environment

Systems for Grievance Redressal

Accountability and Control of Malfeasance

System of Financial Accountability

Accountability Through Audit Agencies

Accountability Through Elected Local Bodies

Accountability Through Watchdogs

Factors Promoting Accountability

Control of Malfeasance

Conclusion

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