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Globalisation, Economic Reforms and Employment Strategy in India   
Globalisation, Economic Reforms and Employment Strategy in India


s p gupta

Hard Bound Book (6" x 8")   :   Pages : 276
2006  Edition         :   ISBN - 81-7188-462-8
Price : Rs. 695.00;  US $ 49.95
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Here's one of the latest books on employment strategy written by a leading authority on the subject. In the words of the author who was the chairman of the special group that prepared the much discussed report on 'targeting 10 million employment opportunities per year', prepared by the Planning Commission, Govt. of India (May 2002) "this book attempts to monitor the implementation of this report's employment approach in the field and accordingly assess the effectiveness of this recommended approach and its limitations." Incidentally, readers can find the Executive Summary of the report appended in the book.

The author notes "since the release of the 2002 report, there have been vast and rapid changes in the world scenario and, as a result, changes in the socio-economic fabric of India. It is increasingly realised that in isolation, in this growing and integrated world, it would not be possible to formulate or develop any effective employment strategy. Indeed, all these new scenarios demand radical changes in the mindsets of policymakers and other development agents and accordingly the priorities and sequencing of India's employment policies....

"It has also been found that the present technological trend originating in many developed countries, appropriate to their 'factor endowment' with an abundance of capital and a scarcity of labour, are proving a misfit in most less developed economies. In this attempt, most of the labour surplus economies are facing a near jobless growth, primarily by using the imported technologies especially in all their 'globally integrated' production units.

"Furthermore, the texture of the labour force in the developing world is fast changing, with increasing youths in the labour force, particularly in educated segments. Around 80 percent of those youths who are currently unemployed are well-educated, and that number is increasing fast. This new scenario is becoming politically unsustainable since the educated youths mostly come from the rising middle class, with its inherent political and social clout. 

"Job opportunities in the global market are lagging behind its expectations and potentials because of the growing, vested interests arising from political and commercial power games, communal and ethnic consideration and national interests. There is a strong view that..." The book warns...


S.P. Gupta (Ph.D. in economics from London University) has completed several high ranking assignments in and outside the Indian Government. A former member of the Planning Commi-ssion, Dr. S.P. Gupta has also served the World Bank. His writings have appeared in leading journals. He is currently Chairman, Society for Economic and Social Transition (SEST), New Delhi.




Changing Employment Strategy and its Rationale

The Indian Perspective and the Dimension of the Problem

Recommended Alternative Employment Strategy

Operational Methodology


Changing Employment Scenario: Emerging New Issues


The Assessment of the Plan Strategy: Its Achievements

Emerging Issues

Empirical Findings of the Growth of Employment and Unemployment Indicators
(1993-94 to October 2002)


Vocational Training and Skill Development


Dimensions on the Need for Vocational Training

Prioritisation of Skill Building and Vocational Training

An Outline of the Existing Vocational System

Quantitative Deficiencies in Skill Development

Skill Mismatches

Structural Deficiencies

Some Comments on ITI's Efficiency and Organisation

Elements of Skill Development Strategy

Summary and Recommendations


Cluster Development


Status of Clusters and their Problems

Involving Large Industries in Cluster Development Programmes

Developing a Feasible Model for Cluster Development

Criteria for Selection of Clusters

Measures for Involving State Governments in the Programme of Cluster Development

Measures for Involving Large Industries in the Programme of Cluster Development

Skill Upgradation in Clusters


Business Process Outsourcing: Potentialities for Employment Generation

Difference between Business Process Outsourcing and IT Outsourcing

Forms of Business Process Outsourcing

The Probable Range of Processes Outsourced

The Reasons for Outsourcing

Current Backlash

How to Deal with the Emerging Scenario

Developed Countries-The Demographic Shift


Business Process Outsourcing: Potentialities for Employment Generation

Historical background

Functions of the National Employment Service (NES)

Public Perception of the Employment Service

Present Employment Scenario vis--vis Employment Exchange Operations

Private Placement Agencies

Are the Employment Exchanges Relevant Today?

Whether the Employment Exchange is Necessary Today

Career Counselling and Vocational Guidance

Cost Effectiveness of the Employment Exchanges

Are Employment Exchanges Doing the Jobs as Effectively as Expected?

What Employment Exchanges Should do in the Present Scenario?


Labour Welfare and Social Security

Section I: Social Security For The Organised Sector


Social Security Laws

Administration of Social Security Acts

Employees' Provident Funds and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952

Employees Deposit Linked Insurance Scheme, 1976

Employees' Pension Scheme, 1995

Modernisation Programme-Reinventing EPFO

The Employees State Insurance Scheme

Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972

Workmen's Compensation Act, 1923

Maternity Benefit Act, 1961

Section II: The Unorganised Sector Workers Social Security Scheme, 2004

Short Title, Commencement and Application


Registration of Members

Collection and Recording of Contributors

Compliance and Enforcement

Finance and Investment

Award and Payment of Benefits

Payment of Pension


Section III: The Employment Guarantee Bill of 2005
(As passed by Lok Sabha on 23.8.2005)

Section IV: Jai Prakash Rozgar Guarantee Yojana (JPRGY)

Allocation of Districts

Identification of Districts within the States

Selection of Blocks within the Selected Districts

Wage Employment under the JPRGY

Self-Employment under the JPRGY

Operationalisation of the JPRGY




List of Tables and Boxes



The Macro Economic Indicators on NDP, Employment and Unemployment-Organised and Unorganised Sectors, 1993-94 to 2001-02 (on Usual Status)

2.2 Sector-wise Growth of Employment from 50th to 55th Round and 55th to 58th Round of NSSO (Usual Status)
2.3 Aggregate Employment Growth (Overall and Sectoral): Usual Status
2.4 Number of Unemployed and Percentage to Corresponding Labour Force
2.5 Workforce, Underemployment and Employment Elasticity under UPSS, WS & CDS
2.6 Number of Female-headed Households; Household Size and Sex-ratio for the Female-headed Households during 1993-94 and 1999-2000
2.7 Average Household Size (0.0) and Sex Ratio (Female per 1000 Males) over the different NSS Surveys
2.8 Consumption and Poverty by Gender Groups

Youth Unemployment in Contrast to All Age Unemployment
(i) Youth versus All Age
(ii) Female Youth versus All Age Female
(iii) Male Youth versus All Age Male
(iv) Female Youths (Rural versus Urban)

2.10 Educated Unemployment in the Rural and Urban Sectors: 1987-88, 1993-94 and 1999-2000
2.11 Female Educated Unemployed 1987-88, 1993-94 and 1999-2000
2.12 (i) Unemployment Rates 1993-94 and 1999-2000 Rural (Usual Status)
(ii) Urban (Usual Status)
2.13 Unemployment Rates: Selected States (on usual status)
2.14 Variation of Employment Rates among States for the Years 1994, 2000 and 2002
3.1 Estimated Number of Children Leaving School (2001-02)
3.2 Ranking of Priority Areas for Vocational Training and Skill Development
3.3 Demography of Labour Force, Youth and Employment (Dimensions based on NSS Survey of EU, on CDS basis)
3.4 Vocational Training Programmes Conducted by Departments/Institutions
3.5 Intake Capacity in the ITIs by Trade (2002)


2.1 Strategy and Achievements: Tenth Five Year Plan
3.1 Tamil Nadu Scheme for Training-cum-Production Centres
3.2 Initiatives Taken by the Department of Employment and Training, Government of Andhra Pradesh, Since August, 2003
3.3 National Competency Testing Agency Proposed by MHRD
4.1 An Analysis of Cluster Development Initiatives
5.1 Indicative List of Internal Processes Outsourced
List of Annexures
IA Growth of Employment in Rural Areas as per Weekly Status
IB Growth of Youth Employment in Rural Areas as per Weekly Status
IIA Growth of Employment in Urban Areas as per Weekly Status
IIB Growth of Youth Employment in Urban Areas as per Weekly Status
IIIA Growth of Employment in India (Rural and Urban Combined) as per Weekly Status
IIIB Growth of Youth Employment in India (Rural and Urban Combined) as per Weekly Status
IVA Growth of Employment in Rural Areas as per Usual Status
IVB Growth of Youth Employment in Rural Areas as per Usual Status
VA Growth of Employment in Urban Areas as per Usual Status
VB Growth of Youth Employment in Urban Areas as per Usual Status
VIA Growth of Employment in India (Rural and Urban Combined) as per Usual Status
VIB Growth of Youth Employment in All Areas (Rural and Urban Combined) as per Usual Status
VII A Note Highlighting the Salient Features of the Sample Designs of Quinquennial Surveys and Annual Surveys on Consumer Expenditure and Employment - Unemployment in the NSS
VIII Growth of Persons Attending Educational Institutions (Usual Status)
IX State-wise Population and Employment Estimates by Usual Status 1994, 2000 & 2002 (Table 1-3). Average Annual Growth Rate of Population and Employment During 1994-2000 (Table-4). Average Annual Growth Rate of Population and Employment During 2000-2002 (Table-5)
X Enrolment Capacities for Vocational Education and Training in Different States
XI Indicative List of Vocations under Identified Sectors
XII Summary and overview of the Report by the Special Group on Targeting 10 million Employment Opportunity per year by Planning Commission, Government of India May 2002 (Page 1-17) under Chairmanship of Dr. S.P. Gupta, Member Planning Commission
XIII Summary Recommendations of Report of the Study Group on Development of Small Scale Enterprises, (Page 4-8) Planning Commission, New Delhi (2001) under Chairmanship of Dr. S.P. Gupta, Member Planning Commission.
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