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Valuation of Coastland Resources   

Valuation of Coastland Resources

The Case of Mangroves in Gujarat

Indira Hirway & Subhrangsu Goswami
Published by Academic Foundation in association with
Hard Bound Book (5½" x 8¾") :   Pages : 170
2007  Edition   :   ISBN -81-7188-596-9
Price : Rs. 595.00 ;  US $ 35.95
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National income statistics, which form the basis for measuring and monitoring the performance of an economy, do not include environmental resources adequately, with the result that they fail to provide the required inputs for the formulation of sound economic policies, particularly in the context of sustainable development. Coastal resources are important in a country like India, which is surrounded by sea from three sides, and mangroves, the salt tolerant forest ecosystem that is one of the richest ecosystems in the world, provides a wide range of ecological and economic products and services, including carbon sequestration and protection to life and property under severe cyclones and tsunamis. However, mangroves are neglected, as their value is not incorporated in the national income data. The present study, which is a methodological study, compiles economic value of mangroves in India and shows that this rich ecosystem contributes significantly to the economy, and it needs to be strengthened in order to promote sustainable development of coastal regions and to protect coastal population from cyclones and tsunamis.


Indira Hirway is the director and professor of economics at the Centre For Development Alternatives (CFDA), Ahmedabad, India. She studied for her Masters at the Delhi School of Economics, Delhi and for her PhD at the University of Bombay, Mumbai. She has pub-lished books and articles in several areas— poverty and human development, labour and employment, globalisation and development paradigms as well as environment and development and environment accounting.

Subhrangsu Goswami is an environmental engineer and environmental planner. He has been actively involved in various research projects in the field of water, environment and development, at CFDA as well as at the School of Planning, CEPT, Ahmedabad. Currently, he is a doctoral scholar of Planning and Public Policy at CEPT University, Ahmedabad.


List of Figures, Tables and Annexures



1. Valuation of Mangroves: A Major Ecosystem on the Indian Coast


Mangroves: Critical for Ecology and Economy

Economic Uses

Protection against Strong Winds, Cyclones and Tsunami Waves

Other Critical Ecological Functions

Global Status of Mangroves

Mangroves in India

Biodiversity of Mangrove Ecosystem in India

Mangroves of West Coast

Mangroves of East Coast

Depletion and Degradation of Mangroves in India

Conservation Measures

Present Study

2. Changing Status of Mangroves in Gujarat

Mangroves in Gujarat

Classification of Mangroves

Onshore Mangroves

Estuarine Mangroves

Deltaic Mangroves

Mangroves of the Gulf

Changing Status of Mangroves in the State

Mangroves between 1960s and 1980s

Depletion and Degradation of Mangroves in the 1990s

Restoration and Regeneration of Mangroves in Gujarat

REMAG Project

Potential of Mangroves in the State

3. Approach to Valuation of Mangroves

Framework for Valuation of Mangroves

Replacement Cost Versus Development Cost

Use and Non-use Value

Value of Mangroves at Different Levels

Livelihood Protection and Distributional Dimension of Valuation

Present and Potential Value of Mangroves

Methods of Valuation of Mangroves

The Replacement Method

Estimating Direct and Indirect Use Value of Mangroves

Estimating Non-use Value of Mangroves

Potential Value of Mangroves

4. Replacement Value of Mangroves

The Sample Villages

Regeneration of Mangroves in the Selected Villages

Replacement and Restoration Cost

Value of Full Restoration of Mangroves in the State

5. The Present Direct and Indirect Use Value of Mangroves in Gujarat

The Direct Use Value of Mangroves

Value of Mangroves as Fodder

Value of Mangroves as Fuel Wood and for Construction

Value of Mangroves as Timber

Collection of Crabs, Mudskippers and Fish from Mangrove Waters

Total Direct Use Value of Mangroves in Gujarat

Indirect Use Value of Mangroves

Indirect Use Value of Mangroves for On-shore Fishery

Value of Mangroves for Off-shore Fisheries

Indirect Use Value of Mangroves for Protection

Value of Mangroves for their Ecological Functions

Potential Direct Use Value of Mangroves

Wood Products

Non-wood Products

Recreation and Ecotourism

Summary Picture of Direct and Indirect Use Value

6. Estimating Non-use Value of Mangroves

Non-use Value and Indirect Use Value

Carbon Sequestration

Shoreline Stabilisation/Erosion Control

Mangroves for the Future

7. Concluding Observations and Inferences

Use and Non-use Value of Mangroves

Limitations of Valuation

Need For Further Research

Inferences For Coastal Development Policy


Selected References



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