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WTO Dispute Settlement: One-Page Case Summaries   
World Trade Report 2012
Trade and public policies: A closer look at non-tariff measures in the 21st century
World Trade Organization (WTO)

Paperback Book (210 297 mm)  :   Pages : 248

2012  Edition   :   ISBN - 978-92-870-3815-9

Price : Rs. 3770  / USD 65

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about THE BOOK :

The World Trade Report 2012 ventures beyond tariffs to examine other policy measures that can affect trade. Regulatory measures for trade in goods and services raise new and pressing challenges for international cooperation in the 21st century. More than many other measures, they reflect public policy goals (such as ensuring the health, safety and well-being of consumers) but they may also be designed and applied in a manner that unnecessarily frustrates trade. The focus of this report is on technical barriers to trade (TBT), sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures (concerning food safety and animal/plant health) and domestic regulation in services.

The Report examines why governments use non-tariff measures (NTMs) and services measures and the extent to which these measures may distort international trade. It looks at the availability of information on NTMs and the latest trends concerning usage. The Report also discusses the impact that NTMs and services measures have on trade and examines how regulatory harmonization and/or mutual recognition of standards may help to reduce any trade-hindering effects.

Finally, the Report discusses international cooperation on NTMs and services measures. It reviews the economic rationale for such cooperation and discusses the efficient design of rules on NTMs in a trade agreement. It examines how cooperation has occurred on TBT/SPS measures and services regulation in the multilateral trading system, and within other international forums and institutions. A legal analysis is provided regarding the treatment of NTMs in WTO dispute system and interpretations of the rules that have emerged in recent international trade disputes. The Report concludes with a discussion of outstanding challenges and key policy implications.


Contents :


Acknowledgements and Disclaimer

Foreword by the WTO Director-General

Executive summary

I World trade in 2011

II Trade and public policies: A closer look at non-tariff measures in the 21st century

A Introduction

1. What is the World Trade Report 2012 about?

2. History of NTMs in the GATT/WTO

B An economic perspective on the use of non-tariff measures

1. Reasons for government intervention and types of measures

2. The choice of NTMs in light of domestic and international constraints

3. Measures affecting trade in services

4. NTMs in the 21St century

5. Summary and conclusions

C An inventory of non-tariff measures and services measures

1. Sources of information on NTMs and services measures

2. Stylized facts about NTMs related to trade in goods

3. Services measures

4. Conclusions

D The trade effects of non-tariff measures and services measures

1. Estimating the trade effects of NTMs and services measures

2. Disentangling trade effects of TBT/SPS measures and domestic regulation in service's

3. Harmonization and mutual recognition

4. Conclusions

E International cooperation on non-tariff measures in a globalized world

1. The regulation of NTMs in trade agreements

2. Cooperation in specific policy areas: TBT/SPS and services measures

3. GATT/WTO disciplines on NTMs as interpreted in dispute settlement

4. Adapting the WTO to a world beyond tariffs

5. Conclusions

F Conclusions


Technical notes

Abbreviations and symbols

List of figures, tables and boxes

WTO members

Previous World Trade Reports

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