This publication provides a comprehensive analysis of recent labour
market and social trends, assesses risks of social unrest and presents
employment projections for the next five years. The report emphasises
that while employment has begun to recover slowly, job quality is
deteriorating and there is a growing sense of unfairness. Moreover,
given the pressure on governments to rein in expenditure, policy
efforts have focused on structural reforms to boost employment
creation. However, if policy instruments are not carefully designed,
they could exacerbate the employment situation and aggravate further
equity concerns, with potentially long-lasting adverse consequences
for both the economy and society.
Today more than ever it is
evident that financial organizations that fail to heed the principles of
sound financial management will rapidly find themselves in trouble. Over
ten years ago, Robert Peck Christen observed this in the context of
microfinance programs burgeoning in the late 1990's. His concern spurred
the writing of this manual.
Developed to help microfinance
program administrators manage for financial success, this best-selling
manual today still offers practical and clear applications of traditional
financial topics to microfinance institutions.
In this manual, Christen
addresses interest rate policy, management of assets and liabilities,
capital and portfolio risk, and strategic financial planning—all key
issues for microfinance institutions and all important for the donors,
consultants, and regulators who work regularly with microfinance
institutions to understand. The manual presents the theoretical framework
along with numerous examples, allowing the reader to deepen his or her
understanding of the subject matter.
Mustafizur Rahman • Wasel Bin Shadat • Selim Raihan
The present volume makes an important contribution to
the rich literature on impact of trade reforms on growth and employment by
undertaking an indepth investigation into relevant issues in the context
of the developing economy of Bangladesh. The study tracks and investigates
the various phases of trade reforms pursued by Bangladesh over the past
years. By applying appropriate analytical and estimation techniques, the
study captures how and to what extent trade reforms have impacted on
growth of manufacturing sector of the country during the various stages of
the reforms and how employment scenarios have changed in labour-intensive
and export-oriented sectors of the country over the corresponding periods
as a consequence of the reforms. The book argues that further trade
reforms should be guided by concerns of employment creation and should be
tailored to the demands of accelerated industrial growth as Bangladesh
enters into a heightened pace of global integration of her economy.
is a major concern in today’s world. Over and above, employment becomes
the first casualty of financial crises that seem to occur almost in a
periodic manner. How well the countries have mainstreamed employment in
their macro strategies? How coherent are the macro policies that countries
follow from the perspective of centrality of Decent Work in the context of
investment and growth?
scans the macro-economic settings of the seven countries of South Asian
subregion that include Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Iran, Nepal,
Pakistan and Sri Lanka and explores how well the macro economic strategies
pursued by these countries cohere with the Decent Work objectives.
contributed by various authors in this volume present elaborate research
based empirical information and analyses for the readers, researchers,
policy makers and multilateral institutions.
import in this volume also provides a perspective on globalization. Are
these countries reaping the benefits of this process? Is globalization
helping in achieving the Decent Work goals? The book raises many issues
and opens up wide areas of debate.
Minimum wages and collective bargaining Towards policy
International Labour Office, Geneva.
The first in a
new series of ILO reports focusing on wage developments, this volume
reviews major trends in the level and distribution of wages around the
world since 1995. It considers the effects of economic growth and
globalization on wage trends, looking closely at the role of minimum wages
and collective bargaining, and suggests ways to improve wage levels and to
enable more equal distribution.
Wages are a
major component of decent work, yet there is a serious knowledge gap in
this increasingly important area which this report begins to address. Part
one summarizes the main trends in average wages and distribution of wages,
providing a statistical analysis of the links between wages and economic
growth, along with wage forecasts for 2008 and 2009. Part two examines the
relationship between minimum wage policies and collective bargaining,
highlighting the effects of institutions on wage outcomes and the
importance of coherent policy articulation. Part three concludes with
concrete policy recommendations and identifies key issues for further
research. The report includes full technical and statistical annexes.
reviews the history of labour relations in Nepal and considers criticisms
of the existing industrial relations system. It reports on the
re-emergence of the militant Maoist trade union and the recent upsurge in
strikes and demonstrations in Nepal. A reduction in workplace tension is
needed to cement in place the recent peace agreement, facilitate political
stability and promote economic growth.
broad economic developments since 1990, it sheds light on how labour
legislation and labour institutions have influenced investment, growth and
jobs over the long term. The views of those most directly affected by the
labour legislation, institutions and attitudes that govern industrial
relations in Nepal have been collected through surveys and interviews with
managing directors and entrepreneurs, trade union leaders and hundreds of
ordinary workers from a range of locations, industries and occupations.
These views have heavily influenced the conclusions presented in this
The world faces a huge challenge of creating productive
jobs for its expanding labour force. Unlike the challenge of sustaining
global economic growth or that of correcting global trade imbalances, this
global employment challenge is barely recognized and its nature and
magnitude are certainly not well understood. Indeed, there is a widespread
(though rarely stated) belief that even in an era of globalization
employment remains a national concern, so that there can be no such thing
as a global employment challenge. Yet the employment challenge today is
global in several important respects. Inadequate availability of
productive jobs is now a worldwide phenomenon. Global forces –
cross-border flows of trade, capital and labour – have significant con -
sequences for employment in individual countries. Also, international
policies are now as important as national policies for expanding
opportunities for productive employment in less developed countries, which
is where most of the world’s workers live and where almost all of the
world’s new workers will live.
This authoritative compendium brings together the latest thinking of
leading academics, actuaries, and development professionals in the
microinsurance field. The result is a practical, wide-ranging resource
which provides the most thorough overview of the subject to date.
The book allows readers to benefit from the valuable lessons learned from
a project launched by the CGAP Working Group on Microinsurance analysing
operations around the world. Essential reading for insurance
professionals, practitioners and anyone involved with offering insurance
to low-income persons, this volume covers the many aspects of
microinsurance in detail, including product design, marketing, premium
collection and governance.
It also discusses the various institutional arrangements available for
delivery such as the community- based approach, insurance companies owned
by networks of savings and credit cooperatives and microfinance
The roles of key stakeholders are also explored and the book offers
insightful strategies for achieving the right balance between coverage,
costs and price.
Essential reading for all those concerned with the history and
practice of industrial relations, this landmark volume chronicles
the evolution of the field to date. It focuses on the largely untold
story of how the globalization of industrial relations took hold,
and explores in depth the pivotal events, ideas and people behind
Provides the only comprehensive, up-to-date account of the
evolution of the industrial relations field
Outlines the four pillars that led to the internationalization
of industrial relations after World War II
Includes substantive background on the roots of industrial
relations in the Anglo-Saxon countries, including the role of the
Traces the development of modern industrial relations in
continental Europe, Japan, Republic of Korea, India, Africa and
Discusses the future prospects for the field of industrial
WORLD COMMISSION ON THE SOCIAL DIMENSION OF
Excerpts from the Preface:
"We believe the dominant perspective on globalization must shift more from a narrow
preoccupation with markets to a broader preoccupation with people. Globalization must be
brought from the high pedestal of corporate board rooms and cabinet meetings to meet the
needs of people in the communities in which they live. The social dimension of
globalization is about jobs, health and education – but it goes far beyond these. It
is the dimension of globalization which people experience in their daily life and work:
the totality of their aspirations for democratic participation and material prosperity.
A better globalization is the key to a better and secure life for people everywhere in
the 21st century.
"We also propose a
process by which such a perspective can be realized at all levels, beginning with
empowered local communities and improved and more accountable national governance; fair
global rules applied fairly; and global institutions that are more pro-people.
In today’s global economy,
corporate managers are in the front line when it comes to transforming management
principles from an abstract vision into reality. International labour standards (ILS)
can be effective and powerful tools around which managers can build their corporate
policies and practices. ILS embody the principle that workers are an asset in which to
invest, rather than a cost to be borne, and this book presents convincing evidence that
the practical implementation of these standards can help a company develop its
competitive edge by putting people first.
The book presents numerous
case studies from both large and small companies all over the world, where the adoption
of ILS has transformed working practices. It provides concrete examples of how
implementing ILS on issues such as recruiting and hiring, employee involvement and
labour relations, and health and safety, has helped organizations to create a healthy
and positive working environment while at the same time reducing labour costs and
Dealing with such
contemporary contexts as the global economy, online recruiting, an ageing workforce, and
HIV/AIDS in the workplace, this is a timely and important resource for managers who want
to know how to treat their employees with dignity without compromising the bottom line.
It shows how implementing ILS in any company is not only a wise code of conduct, but
makes sound business sense as well.
Labour standards have long
been upheld by the ILO as an essential pillar of development and peace at the national
and international levels. Respect for fundamental rights at work is at the core of the
ILO's decent work strategy. This important new book offers valuable insight on the
content and application of the ILO's fundamental international labour standards and
These fundamental standards
— on freedom of association collective bargaining, the abolition of forced and
compulsory labour, equality of opportunity and treatment, and the protection of of
children and young people — form the basis of the ILO's Declaration on Fundamental
Princi-ples and Rights at Work and its Follow-up, 1998.
The book offers a detailed
description of the relevant Conventions and their principles, along with specific
problems encountered in their application at national level. Together, the information
in this volume provides a thoughtful overview which can provide the basis for an ever
more practical and fuller application of fundamental human rights worldwide. A crucial
resource for labour authorities, lawyers, practitioners, and employers' and workers'